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Molecules 2017, 22(11), 2030;

The Rosiglitazone-Like Effects of Vitexilactone, a Constituent from Vitex trifolia L. in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes

College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-5-1 Kandasurugadai, Chiyoda, Tokyo 101-0062, Japan
Department of Biomedical Information Engineering, Graduate School of Medical Science, Yamagata University, 2-2-2 Iidanishi, Yamagata 990-9585, Japan
School of Medical Technology, Faculty of Health Science, Gunma Paz University, 1-7-1 Tonyamachi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-0006, Japan
Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Showa University, 4562 Kamiyoshida, Fujiyoshida, Yamanashi 403-0005, Japan
Botany Department, Pathein University, Main Rd., Pathein, Myanmar
School of Medicine, Nihon University, 30-1 Oyaguchi-kamicho, Itabashi, Tokyo 173-8610, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 October 2017 / Revised: 8 November 2017 / Accepted: 17 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Compounds)
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The increased number of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) has become a worldwide problem, and insulin sensitizers such as thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are used as therapeutic agents. We found that extracts of Vitex trifolia L. (V. trifolia), a medicinal plant from Myanmar, induced adipogenesis similar to rosiglitazone (ROS), which is a TZD, in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. In the present study, we attempted to isolate from V. trifolia those compounds that showed ROS-like effects. Among the extracts of hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol obtained from V. trifolia, the ethyl acetate extract with the strongest ROS-like effects was purified by various chromatographic methods to obtain three known compounds: vitexilactone (1), vitexicarpin (2) and oleanolic acid (3). Among the isolated compounds, the ROS-like action of 1 was the strongest. The effects of 1 on 3T3-L1 cells during adipogenesis were compared with those of ROS. Both 1 and ROS increased lipid accumulation, the expression of adiponectin and GLUT4 in the cell membrane and decreased both the size of adipocytes and the phosphorylation of IRS-1, ERK1/2 and JNK in 3T3-L1 cells. In contrast, unlike ROS, the induction of proteins involved in lipogenesis was partial. ROS-like effects of 1 in 3T3-L1 cells were suppressed by the addition of bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), one of a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) antagonists, suggesting that the action of 1 on adipocytes is mediated by PPARγ. From the results of the present study, it can be concluded that 1 is a novel insulin sensitizer candidate. View Full-Text
Keywords: Vitex trifolia L.; adipogenesis; lipolysis; lipogenesis; rosiglitazone; vitexilactone Vitex trifolia L.; adipogenesis; lipolysis; lipogenesis; rosiglitazone; vitexilactone

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Nishina, A.; Itagaki, M.; Sato, D.; Kimura, H.; Hirai, Y.; Phay, N.; Makishima, M. The Rosiglitazone-Like Effects of Vitexilactone, a Constituent from Vitex trifolia L. in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes. Molecules 2017, 22, 2030.

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