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Molecules 2017, 22(1), 41;

The Effects of Destruxin A on Relish and Rel Gene Regulation to the Suspected Immune-Related Genes of Silkworm

Key Laboratory of Bio-Pesticide Innovation and Application of Guangdong Province, College of Agriculture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 28 August 2016 / Revised: 24 December 2016 / Accepted: 26 December 2016 / Published: 29 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Bioorganic Chemistry)
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Destruxin A (DA), a cyclodepsipeptidic mycotoxin of entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae, has anti-immunity activity against insects, but the mechanism of immune regulation is not clear yet. In our previous experiment, the significant expression changes of Bm_nscaf2838_045, Bm_nscaf2674_066, and Bm_nscaf2767_133 genes in a silkworm’s hemocytes were found, which suggested that these genes might be involved in insect’s innate immunity. In the current experiment, the silkworm cell line Bm12 was used to survey the expression levels of these genes after the cells were treated with DA and the transcription factors BmRel, BmRelish1 and BmRelish2 were silenced by specific siRNA. The results indicated that, after the cells were treated by DA, the gene expression level of BmRelish2 was significantly downregulated, but BmRel and BmRelish1 were not changed. The results also showed that the gene expression levels of Bm_nscaf2838_045 and Bm_nscaf2674_066 had similar phenomena, i.e., downregulation with individual BmRelish1 gene silence or DA treatment, upregulation with combination of BmRelish1 gene silence and DA treatment, upregulation with individual BmRelish2 gene silence, and downregulation with combination of BmRelish2 gene silence plus DA treatment, but no changes in the BmRel gene silence combined with DA treatment. For the Bm_nscaf2767_133 gene, the downregulated expressions were found in individual BmRelish2 gene silence or DA treatment, upregulation in the combination treatment of BmRelish2 gene silence plus DA, and the individual treatment of BmRel or BmRelish1 silence. It is suggested that expressions of the Bm_nscaf2838_045 and Bm_nscaf2674_066 genes are closely related to the Imd signal pathway, but Bm_nscaf2767_133 genes might involve in both Toll and Imd pathways. Furthermore, the BmRelish1 gene acts as an activator and the BmRelish2 gene acts as a repressor for both Bm_nscaf2838_045 and Bm_nscaf2674_066 gene expressions. It also implies that DA may participate in the splicing process of BmRelish where BmRelish2 was promoted. Our research will provide new insights on the understanding of the activity mechanisms of destruxins. View Full-Text
Keywords: destruxin; Bm12 cell; Imd; TollL; Relish; Rel destruxin; Bm12 cell; Imd; TollL; Relish; Rel

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Hu, W.; He, G.; Wang, J.; Hu, Q. The Effects of Destruxin A on Relish and Rel Gene Regulation to the Suspected Immune-Related Genes of Silkworm. Molecules 2017, 22, 41.

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