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Open AccessArticle

Arctigenin Inhibits Lung Metastasis of Colorectal Cancer by Regulating Cell Viability and Metastatic Phenotypes

Department of Oriental Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Wonkwang-Oriental Medicines Research Institute, Wonkwang University, 460 Iksandae-ro, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538, Korea
Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538, Korea
Isotope Sciences Lab, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup, Jeonbuk 54538, Korea
Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538, Korea
Department of Herbology, College of Oriental Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538, Korea
Department of Herb Science, Dong-eui institute of technology, 54 Yangji-ro, Busanjin-gu, Busan 47230, Korea
Department of Pharmacology, College of Korean Medicine, Institute of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 26, Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Korea
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira
Molecules 2016, 21(9), 1135;
Received: 13 July 2016 / Revised: 24 August 2016 / Accepted: 24 August 2016 / Published: 27 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Compounds)
PDF [1483 KB, uploaded 27 August 2016]


Arctigenin (ARC) has been shown to have an anti-cancer effect in various cell types and tissues. However, there have been no studies concerning metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, we investigated the anti-metastatic properties of ARC on colorectal metastasis and present a potential candidate drug. ARC induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in CT26 cells through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway via MAPKs signaling. In several metastatic phenotypes, ARC controlled epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through increasing the expression of epithelial marker E-cadherin and decreasing the expressions of mesenchymal markers; N-cadherin, vimentin, β-catenin, and Snail. Moreover, ARC inhibited migration and invasion through reducing of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 expressions. In an experimental metastasis model, ARC significantly inhibited lung metastasis of CT26 cells. Taken together, our study demonstrates the inhibitory effects of ARC on colorectal metastasis. View Full-Text
Keywords: Arctigenin; colorectal cancer; apoptosis; lung metastasis Arctigenin; colorectal cancer; apoptosis; lung metastasis

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Han, Y.-H.; Kee, J.-Y.; Kim, D.-S.; Mun, J.-G.; Jeong, M.-Y.; Park, S.-H.; Choi, B.-M.; Park, S.-J.; Kim, H.-J.; Um, J.-Y.; Hong, S.-H. Arctigenin Inhibits Lung Metastasis of Colorectal Cancer by Regulating Cell Viability and Metastatic Phenotypes. Molecules 2016, 21, 1135.

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