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Molecules 2015, 20(7), 13005-13030;

Carrier Modulation Layer-Enhanced Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu-30013, Taiwan
Advanced Process Research Division, AU Optronics Corporation, Hsinchu-30078, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 30 May 2015 / Revised: 7 July 2015 / Accepted: 9 July 2015 / Published: 17 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Diversity)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2687 KB, uploaded 17 July 2015]   |  


Organic light-emitting diode (OLED)-based display products have already emerged in the market and their efficiencies and lifetimes are sound at the comparatively low required luminance. To realize OLED for lighting application sooner, higher light quality and better power efficiency at elevated luminance are still demanded. This review reveals the advantages of incorporating a nano-scale carrier modulation layer (CML), also known as a spacer, carrier-regulating layer, or interlayer, among other terms, to tune the chromaticity and color temperature as well as to markedly improve the device efficiency and color rendering index (CRI) for numerous OLED devices. The functions of the CML can be enhanced as multiple layers and blend structures are employed. At proper thickness, the employment of CML enables the device to balance the distribution of carriers in the two emissive zones and achieve high device efficiencies and long operational lifetime while maintaining very high CRI. Moreover, we have also reviewed the effect of using CML on the most significant characteristics of OLEDs, namely: efficiency, luminance, life-time, CRI, SRI, chromaticity, and the color temperature, and see how the thickness tuning and selection of proper CML are crucial to effectively control the OLED device performance. View Full-Text
Keywords: OLED; carrier modulation layer; efficiency; lifetime; CRI; SRI; chromaticity tuning; color temperature OLED; carrier modulation layer; efficiency; lifetime; CRI; SRI; chromaticity tuning; color temperature

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Jou, J.-H.; Kumar, S.; Singh, M.; Chen, Y.-H.; Chen, C.-C.; Lee, M.-T. Carrier Modulation Layer-Enhanced Organic Light-Emitting Diodes. Molecules 2015, 20, 13005-13030.

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