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Molecules 2015, 20(4), 7059-7096;

Glycodendrimers and Modified ELISAs: Tools to Elucidate Multivalent Interactions of Galectins 1 and 3

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA
The Departments of Oncology and Pathology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Els Van Damme
Received: 5 March 2015 / Revised: 29 March 2015 / Accepted: 1 April 2015 / Published: 20 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein-Carbohydrate Interactions, and Beyond)
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Multivalent protein-carbohydrate interactions that are mediated by sugar-binding proteins, i.e., lectins, have been implicated in a myriad of intercellular recognition processes associated with tumor progression such as galectin-mediated cancer cellular migration/metastatic processes. Here, using a modified ELISA, we show that glycodendrimers bearing mixtures of galactosides, lactosides, and N-acetylgalactosaminosides, galectin-3 ligands, multivalently affect galectin-3 functions. We further demonstrate that lactose functionalized glycodendrimers multivalently bind a different member of the galectin family, i.e., galectin-1. In a modified ELISA, galectin-3 recruitment by glycodendrimers was shown to directly depend on the ratio of low to high affinity ligands on the dendrimers, with lactose-functionalized dendrimers having the highest activity and also binding well to galectin-1. The results depicted here indicate that synthetic multivalent systems and upfront assay formats will improve the understanding of the multivalent function of galectins during multivalent protein carbohydrate recognition/interaction. View Full-Text
Keywords: ELISA; galectin-1; galectin-3; glycodendrimer; dendrimer; multivalent ELISA; galectin-1; galectin-3; glycodendrimer; dendrimer; multivalent

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Wolfenden, M.; Cousin, J.; Nangia-Makker, P.; Raz, A.; Cloninger, M. Glycodendrimers and Modified ELISAs: Tools to Elucidate Multivalent Interactions of Galectins 1 and 3. Molecules 2015, 20, 7059-7096.

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