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Application of a Speedy Modified Entropy Method in Assessing the Complexity of Baroreflex Sensitivity for Age-Controlled Healthy and Diabetic Subjects

1
School of Computer Science and Information Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, No.193 Tunxi Road, Hefei, Anhui 230009, China
2
School of Electrical and Information Engineering, North Minzu University, No. 204 North Wenchang Street, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750021, China
3
School of Science, Ningxia Medical University, No. 1160 Shengli Street, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750004, China
4
Department of Electrical Engineering, Dong Hwa University, No. 1, Sec. 2, Da Hsueh Rd., Shoufeng, Hualien 97401, Taiwan, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Signifies equal contribution compared with the corresponding author.
Entropy 2019, 21(9), 894; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21090894
Received: 15 August 2019 / Revised: 5 September 2019 / Accepted: 12 September 2019 / Published: 14 September 2019
The percussion entropy index (PEIorginal) was recently introduced to assess the complexity of baroreflex sensitivity. This study aimed to investigate the ability of a speedy modified PEI (i.e., PEINEW) application to distinguish among age-controlled subjects with or without diabetes. This was carried out using simultaneous photo-plethysmo-graphy (PPG) pulse amplitude series and the R wave-to-R wave interval (RRI) series acquired from healthy subjects (Group 1, number = 42), subjects diagnosed as having diabetes mellitus type 2 with satisfactory blood sugar control (Group 2, number = 38), and type 2 diabetic patients with poor blood sugar control (Group 3, number = 35). Results from PEIorginal and multiscale cross-approximate entropy (MCAE) were also addressed with the same datasets for comparison. The results show that optimal prolongation between the amplitude series and RRI series could be delayed by one to three heartbeat cycles for Group 2, and one to four heartbeat cycles for Group 3 patients. Group 1 subjects only had prolongation for one heartbeat cycle. This study not only demonstrates the sensitivity of PEINEW and PEIorginal in differentiating between Groups 2 and 3 compared with MCAE, highlighting the feasibility of using percussion entropy applications in autonomic nervous function assessments, it also shows that PEINEW can considerably reduce the computational time required for such processes. View Full-Text
Keywords: autonomic nervous function; heart rate variability (HRV); baroreflex sensitivity (BRS); photo-plethysmo-graphy (PPG); digital volume pulse (DVP); percussion entropy index (PEI) autonomic nervous function; heart rate variability (HRV); baroreflex sensitivity (BRS); photo-plethysmo-graphy (PPG); digital volume pulse (DVP); percussion entropy index (PEI)
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Xiao, M.-X.; Lu, C.-H.; Ta, N.; Jiang, W.-W.; Tang, X.-J.; Wu, H.-T. Application of a Speedy Modified Entropy Method in Assessing the Complexity of Baroreflex Sensitivity for Age-Controlled Healthy and Diabetic Subjects. Entropy 2019, 21, 894.

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