Image retrieval based on a convolutional neural network (CNN) has attracted great attention among researchers because of the high performance. The pooling method has become a research hotpot in the task of image retrieval in recent years. In this paper, we propose the feature distribution entropy (FDE) to measure the difference of regional distribution information in the feature maps from CNNs. We propose a novel pooling method, which fuses our proposed FDE with region maximum activations of convolutions (R-MAC) features to improve the performance of image retrieval, as it takes the advantage of regional distribution information in the feature maps. Compared with the descriptors computed by R-MAC pooling, our proposed method considers not only the most significant feature values of each region in feature map, but also the distribution difference in different regions. We utilize the histogram of feature values to calculate regional distribution entropy and concatenate the regional distribution entropy into FDE, which is further normalized and fused with R-MAC feature vectors by weighted summation to generate the final feature descriptors. We have conducted experiments on public datasets and the results demonstrate that our proposed method could produce better retrieval performances than existing state-of-the-art algorithms. Further, higher performance could be achieved by performing these post-processing on the improved feature descriptors.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited