Special Issue "Advances and New Perspectives in Marine Biotechnology"

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A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2014)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Paul Long
Institute of Pharmaceutical Science & Department of Chemistry, King’s College London, Franklin-Wilkins Building, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom
E-Mail: paul.long@kcl.ac.uk
Interests: biochemical adaptations; streptomyces genetics; natural products discovery; bioinformatics

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Bernie Degnan
School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia
Website: http://www.biology.uq.edu.au/staff/bernie-degnan
E-Mail: b.degnan@uq.edu.au
Interests: evolutionary genomics; developmental biology; aquaculture; marine biotechnology; marine biology

Guest Editor
Prof. Pabulo Henrique Rampelotto
Interdisciplinary Center for Biotechnology Research, Federal University of Pampa, Antônio Trilha Avenue, P.O.Box 1847, 97300-000, São Gabriel–RS, Brazil
Website: https://lifeboat.com/ex/bios.pabulo.henrique.rampelotto
E-Mail: pabulo@lacesm.ufsm.br
Interests: origins of life; extremophiles; astrobiology; metagenomics; next generation sequencing; molecular biology and biochemistry of microorganisms; biotechnology; and space science (Solar System exploration)

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As the Century of Biology begins to bear fruit, through the translation of predictive biological understanding into applications that enhance the human condition and maintain biodiversity, the almost infinite potential of marine biological resources will be unlocked. Although Marine Biotechnology already has delivered products for medicine, food, bioenergy, nanomaterials, and bioremediation, less than 5% of our vast oceanic environment has been explored. Marine Biotechnology is a scientifically and economically expanding enterprise that is poised to harness the enormous but uncharted functional diversity of marine life, with its novel and rich array biodesigns and biosynthetic capabilities. From this pursuit comes new genes, chemicals, materials and inspirations for the benefit of industry, nutrition, medicine and the sustainable use and management of the world’s oceans. This Special Issue in Marine Drugs highlights the cutting-edge developments in Marine Biotechnology with a collection of papers written by authors who are leading experts in the field including selected papers from the 10th International Marine Biotechnology Conference (IMBC-2013), the premier meeting in marine biotechnology under the auspices of the International Marine Biotechnology Association. We cordially welcome you to join us in this endeavor. The submission of comprehensive/mini reviews, original research articles and communications is most welcome.

Prof. Dr. Bernie Degnan
Mr. Pabulo Henrique Rampelotto
Dr. Paul Long
Guest Editors

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Marine Drugs is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • marine biotechnology
  • marine microbiology
  • marine drugs, bioactive compounds and bioproducts
  • marine genomics, marine metagenomics
  • ‘omics’ in marine biotechnology
  • drug discovery and development
  • biomaterials and nanobiotechnology
  • biomineralization, biomineral and biomarker
  • marine venoms, toxins and enzyme inhibitors
  • drug design and synthesis based on marine natural products
  • structural and functional characterization of marine drugs

Published Papers (21 papers)

Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(4), 2156-2163; doi:10.3390/md12042156
Received: 7 February 2014; in revised form: 7 March 2014 / Accepted: 10 March 2014 / Published: 8 April 2014
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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(4), 2089-2113; doi:10.3390/md12042089
Received: 7 February 2014; in revised form: 21 March 2014 / Accepted: 25 March 2014 / Published: 4 April 2014
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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(4), 1959-1976; doi:10.3390/md12041959
Received: 23 December 2013; in revised form: 26 February 2014 / Accepted: 26 February 2014 / Published: 2 April 2014
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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(4), 1891-1910; doi:10.3390/md12041891
Received: 16 January 2014; in revised form: 26 February 2014 / Accepted: 10 March 2014 / Published: 31 March 2014
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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1530-1544; doi:10.3390/md12031530
Received: 15 November 2013; in revised form: 9 January 2014 / Accepted: 22 January 2014 / Published: 13 March 2014
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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1419-1437; doi:10.3390/md12031419
Received: 16 January 2014; in revised form: 23 February 2014 / Accepted: 28 February 2014 / Published: 11 March 2014
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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1390-1405; doi:10.3390/md12031390
Received: 8 February 2014; in revised form: 27 February 2014 / Accepted: 28 February 2014 / Published: 10 March 2014
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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1361-1376; doi:10.3390/md12031361
Received: 10 October 2013; in revised form: 27 January 2014 / Accepted: 18 February 2014 / Published: 7 March 2014
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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1258-1270; doi:10.3390/md12031258
Received: 9 December 2013; in revised form: 31 January 2014 / Accepted: 7 February 2014 / Published: 6 March 2014
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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1245-1257; doi:10.3390/md12031245
Received: 28 November 2013; in revised form: 26 January 2014 / Accepted: 27 January 2014 / Published: 6 March 2014
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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(2), 1131-1147; doi:10.3390/md12021131
Received: 28 November 2013; in revised form: 10 January 2014 / Accepted: 17 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(2), 1102-1115; doi:10.3390/md12021102
Received: 9 December 2013; in revised form: 25 January 2014 / Accepted: 27 January 2014 / Published: 20 February 2014
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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(2), 1013-1022; doi:10.3390/md12021013
Received: 19 December 2013; in revised form: 24 January 2014 / Accepted: 24 January 2014 / Published: 14 February 2014
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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(1), 491-507; doi:10.3390/md12010491
Received: 7 November 2013; in revised form: 28 December 2013 / Accepted: 31 December 2013 / Published: 21 January 2014
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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(1), 462-476; doi:10.3390/md12010462
Received: 20 December 2013; in revised form: 2 January 2014 / Accepted: 10 January 2014 / Published: 21 January 2014
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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(1), 300-316; doi:10.3390/md12010300
Received: 30 October 2013; in revised form: 30 December 2013 / Accepted: 30 December 2013 / Published: 16 January 2014
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Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(12), 4937-4960; doi:10.3390/md11124937
Received: 24 September 2013; in revised form: 28 October 2013 / Accepted: 11 November 2013 / Published: 11 December 2013
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Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(10), 4035-4049; doi:10.3390/md11104035
Received: 17 August 2013; in revised form: 16 September 2013 / Accepted: 26 September 2013 / Published: 22 October 2013
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Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(10), 3902-3925; doi:10.3390/md11103902
Received: 9 August 2013; in revised form: 11 September 2013 / Accepted: 29 September 2013 / Published: 15 October 2013
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Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(10), 3875-3890; doi:10.3390/md11103875
Received: 4 September 2013; in revised form: 26 September 2013 / Accepted: 27 September 2013 / Published: 14 October 2013
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Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(10), 3754-3776; doi:10.3390/md11103754
Received: 28 June 2013; in revised form: 29 August 2013 / Accepted: 3 September 2013 / Published: 30 September 2013
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Type of Paper: Review
Title: Bioactive Marine Drugs and Marine Biomaterials for Brain Diseases
Authors: Clara Grosso 1, Patrícia Valentão 1, Federico Ferreres 2 and Paula B. Andrade 1,*
Affiliations: 1 REQUIMTE/Laboratório de Farmacognosia, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, nº 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal. *E-Mail: pandrade@ff.up.pt
2
Research Group on Quality, Safety and Bioactivity of Plant Foods, Department of Food Science and Technology, CEBAS (CSIC), P.O. Box 164, 30100 Campus University Espinardo, Murcia, Spain
Abstract: Marine invertebrates produce a plethora of bioactive compounds, which serve as inspiration for marine biotechnology, particularly in drug discovery programs and biomaterials development. This review aims to summarize the potential of drugs derived from marine invertebrates in the field of neuroscience and, as such, examples of neuroprotective drugs and neurotoxins will be referred. Their role in neuroscience research and development of new central nervous system therapy will be discussed, with particular focus on neuro-inflammation and neurodegeneration. In addition, it will be emphasized the neural growth promoted by marine drugs, as well as the recent advances in neural tissue engineering.

Type of Paper: Review
Title: Bioactive Marine Drugs: Therapeutic Potential of Conopeptides.
Authors: Patrizia Russo, Alessandra DelBufalo, Massimo Fini and Alfredo Cesario.
Affiliation: IRCCS "San Raffaele Pisana" Via di Valcannuta 249, I-00166 Roma, Italia
Abstract:
Marine cone snails produce venoms that have attracted interest as leads in drug design. Prialt (®), Ziconotide, is derived from the toxin of the cone snail species Conus magus and is currently on the market for the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain. Ziconotide acts as a selective N-type voltage-gated calcium channel blocker.
Conotoxins are small peptides (from 10 to 30 amino acid residues) containing one or more disulfide bonds.  Although Conotoxins have a variety of mechanisms of actions, many of these peptides modulate the activity of different voltage- or ligand-gated ion channels.   α-conotoxins specifically target different isoforms of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). In view of the important role of nAChR in normal and disease physiology such as pain, inflammation, nicotine addiction, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, specific targeting of the relevant nAChR subtypes is an attractive pharmaceutical strategy. α-conotoxins are promising drugs in development leads. In this review the potential of conotoxins will be referred and discussed.

Type of Paper: Article
Title: Antifouling Activity of Synthetic Alkylpyridinium Polymers on the Barnacle Research Model
Authors: Veronica Piazza 1, Ivanka Dragić 2, Marco Faimali 1, Kristina Sepčić 2, Tom Turk 2 and Sabina Berne 2,*
Affiliations:
1 Section of Marine Technologies, Marine Science Institute ISMAR, CNR - Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Genova, Italy
2
Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia; * E-Mail: sabina.berne@bf.uni-lj.si
Abstract: Polymeric alklypyridinium salts (poly-APS) isolated from the Mediterranean marine sponge Haliclona (Rhizoniera) sarai, effectively inhibit barnacle larvae settlement and natural marine biofilm formation by a non-toxic and reversible mechanism. Potential implementation of poly-APS - like compounds in commercial antifouling coatings has led to chemical synthesis of mono- and oligomeric 3-alkylpyridinium analogues. However, they were less efficient in settlement assays and had higher toxicity than natural polymers. Recently, new chemical synthesis method enabled the production of polymeric alkylpyridinium analogues with antibacterial, antifungal and anti-acetylcholinesterase activity. The present study examines their antifouling properties on the barnacle research model (cyprids and stage II nauplii larvae of Amphibalanus amphitrite) using settlement, toxicity and behavioural assays. Two compounds, APS8 and APS12-3, showed antifouling effects very similar to the natural poly-APS, leading to 50% settlement inhibition of A. amphitrite cyprids at 0.32 and 0.89 mg/mL, respectively. APS12-3 was three times more toxic than the natural poly-APS (with LD50 values of 11.60 for nauplii and 51.65 mg/mL for cyprids), but still 60- and 1200-fold lower than the respective common booster biocides, Zn- and Cu-pyrithione.

Type of Paper: Review
Title:
Marine Invertebrate Xenobiotic Receptors: Their Application as Sensor Elements in High-throughput Bioassays for Marine Bioactive Compounds.
Authors:
Ingrid Richter1,2 and Andrew E. Fidler1,3,4
Affiliations:
1Cawthron Institute, Private Bag 2, Nelson 7012, New Zealand, 2Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington 6140, New Zealand, 3Maurice Wilkins Centre for Molecular Biodiscovery, University of Auckland, 4Institute of Marine Science, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142, New Zealand.
Abstract:
Development of high-throughput bioassays for detection of marine bioactive compounds with potential medical significance presents both conceptual and technical challenges. A significant conceptual challenge is to develop bioassays that have well-grounded ecological and evolutionary rationales rather than being somewhat arbitrary combinations of extracts and bioassays. In this context, xenobiotic receptors from marine invertebrates provide potential as they are sensor elements crafted over countless generations by natural evolutionary processes. Vertebrate xenobiotic receptors (XRs) are a sub-class of nuclear receptors which, following activation by binding potentially toxic exogenous compounds, regulate transcription of genes involved in detoxification processes. As genomic sequences become available from an increasing number, and taxonomic range, of marine invertebrates many putative XR genes / orthologues in these taxa are being identified. Given that the diet of marine invertebrates, in particular the filter feeders, includes a diverse range of microorganisms (microalgae, bacteria, fungi), with a vast array of associated complex chemicals, we propose that XRs from these creatures may provide sensor elements for high-throughput bioassays for marine bioactive compounds. Here we review the putative XR genes that have been identified, on the basis of their sequences, in marine invertebrate genomes, the evidence that some such predicted proteins do indeed function to detect xenobiotics and describe those that have been the functionally expressed eukaryotic cells. We then speculate how increasing access to marine invertebrate genome sequence data, functional expression of XR genes in yeast and knowledge of marine invertebrate ecology and evolution can be combined to generate high-throughput bioassays for marine bioactive compounds

Type of Paper: Article
Title
: Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Protect Neural Progenitor Cells against Oxidative Injury
Authors:
Qiang Liu1, Di Wu1, Na Ni1, Huixia Ren1, Jing-Xuan Kang2, Jian-Bo Wan1 and Huanxing Su1*
Affiliations:
1State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Macao, China. * Email: HuanxingSu@umac.mo
2
Laboratory for Lipid Medicine and Technology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
Abstract:
The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), derived mainly from fish oil, play important roles in brain development and neuroplasticity. Here we reported that application of ω-3 PUFAs significantly protected hippocampus-derived mouse neural progenitor cells (NPCs) from H2O2-induced oxidative injury. We also isolated NPCs from transgenic mice expressing the Caenorhabditis elegans fat-1 gene. The fat-1 gene, which is absent in mammals, can add a double bond into an unsaturated fatty acid hydrocarbon chain and convert ω-6 to ω-3 fatty acids. TUNEL staining showed that a marked decrease in apoptotic cells was found in fat-1 NPCs after oxidative injury with H2O2 as compared with wild-type NPCs. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated a much higher expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master transcriptional factor for antioxidant genes, in fat-1 NPCs. The results of the study prove that ω-3 PUFAs resist oxidative injury to NPCs.

Type of Paper: Article
Title: Production of Bisucaberin C, a Novel Macrocyclichydroxamate by Metagenomic Approach
Authors: Masaki J. Fujita1* and Ryuichi Sakai2
Affiliations: 1Creative Research Institution, Hokkaido University, 2Graduate School of Fisheries Sciences, Hokkaido University. *Email: masakifujita@fish.hokudai.ac.jp
Abstract: A novel macrocyclichydroxamate, bisucaberin C (1), was produced by heterologous expression of a biosynthetic gene cluster cloned from a marine metagenome. Macrocyclichomodimers of N-hydroxy-N-succinylcadaverine (bisucaberin (2)) and N-hydroxy-N-succinylputrescin (putrebactin (3)) have been reported from several marine bacteria, while heteromeric dimer was unprecedented. This result suggested that metagenomic approach is a useful technique to obtain biosynthetic genes with unique functionality from uncultured microorganisms.

Type of Paper: Article
Title:
Nocapyrones H-J, Alfa- and Gamma-Pyrones from a Marine-derived Nocardiopsis sp.
Authors:
Y. Kim1, H. Ogura1, Y. Igarashi1, K. Akasaka2, T. Oikawa3 and C. Imada4
Affiliations:
1Toyama Prefectural University, Toyama, Japan.
2
Shokei Gakuin University, Natori, Japan
3
Kanagawa University of Human Services, Kanagawa, Japan.
4
Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan
Abstract:
Two new γ-pyrones (nocapyrones H (1) and I (2)), one new -pyrone (nocapyrone J (3)) and one known γ-pyrone (nocapyrone B (4)) were isolated from the culture extract of a Nocardiopsisstrain collected from marine sediment. Structures of these compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data including NMR and MS. γ-Pyrones 12 and 4 were found to induce adiponectin production in murine ST-13 adipocyte cells while -pyrone 3 had no activity. The absolute configuration of the anteiso-methyl branching of 1 was determined by HPLC comparison of a degraded derivative of 1 with standard samples as a 2:3 enantiomeric mixture of (R)- and (S)-isomers.

Type of Paper: Review
Title:
Nutraceuticals from Marine Macroalgae for Human Health Applications: Anti-obesity, Anti-diabetes and Anti-melanogenesis
Authors:
Daniel Robledo1, Edgar Caamal Fuentes1 Céline Rebours2 and Yolanda Freile Pelegrín1
Affiliations:
1Cinvestav-IPN, Department of Marine Resources, A.P. 73 Cordemex Mérida 97310, Yucatán Mexico;
2
Bioforsk, Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Torggården 8049 Bodø Norway
Abstract:
Nutraceuticals are considered to be any food or food component that provides health benefits beyond basic nutrition. Marine macroalgae are already being used for a wide range of products in food, including stabilising agents. Several health-promoting effects have been reported, such as a decrease in triglycerides (TGL) and uric acid (UrA), and an increase in antioxidant capacity in tested organisms. Despite low lipid content, omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are a significant part of seaweed lipids. These lipids are being important components of all cell membranes and precursors of eicosanoids that are essential bioregulators of many cellular processes; thus reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, osteoporosis, and diabetes. Although, macroalgae nutritional value has been thoroughly reported their potential use as nutraceuticals (functional foods) has not been profoundly addressed. Scientific research on bioactive compounds usually takes place on just a few species or focused on certain compounds. On this respect, the most studied species have been the edible marine brown alga, such as Ecklonia cava that has been proposed to be beneficial in functional foods in diabetes as well as for related symptoms. Another edible brown seaweed, sugar Kombu (Saccharina latissima) is a good source of dietary fiber (DF) and associated compounds. To date, numerous studies on macroalgae have reported on the antidiabetic properties through inhibition of carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes and associated with the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the seaweed extracts. During recent years, much effort has being made to investigate potential inhibitors against α-glucosidase and α-amylase from natural products. Strong inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase and α-amylase has been detected in Eisenia bicyclis methanolic extract containing phlorotannins fucofuroeckol A (FF) and dioxinodehydroeckol (DD). Among other bioactive metabolites, caulerpenyne (CYN) isolated from Caulerpa prolifera has shown strong inhibitory activity on α-amylase, which may be a potential target for the production of diabetic drugs. This paper reviews research on other biological activities such as anti-amylase, anti-glycosidase, anti-lipase, anti-tyrosidase and anti-colinesterase activity. Discussion on the techniques used reviewed from the literature may provide valuable information to address future research in this area.

Last update: 4 March 2014

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