Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1361-1376; doi:10.3390/md12031361
Article

Rapid and Accurate Identification by Real-Time PCR of Biotoxin-Producing Dinoflagellates from the Family Gymnodiniaceae

1,* email, 2email, 1email and 1email
Received: 10 October 2013; in revised form: 27 January 2014 / Accepted: 18 February 2014 / Published: 7 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances and New Perspectives in Marine Biotechnology)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The identification of toxin-producing dinoflagellates for monitoring programmes and bio-compound discovery requires considerable taxonomic expertise. It can also be difficult to morphologically differentiate toxic and non-toxic species or strains. Various molecular methods have been used for dinoflagellate identification and detection, and this study describes the development of eight real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting the large subunit ribosomal RNA (LSU rRNA) gene of species from the genera Gymnodinium, Karenia, Karlodinium, and Takayama. Assays proved to be highly specific and sensitive, and the assay for G. catenatum was further developed for quantification in response to a bloom in Manukau Harbour, New Zealand. The assay estimated cell densities from environmental samples as low as 0.07 cells per PCR reaction, which equated to three cells per litre. This assay not only enabled conclusive species identification but also detected the presence of cells below the limit of detection for light microscopy. This study demonstrates the usefulness of real-time PCR as a sensitive and rapid molecular technique for the detection and quantification of micro-algae from environmental samples.
Keywords: real-time PCR; large subunit ribosomal RNA (LSU rRNA) gene; dinoflagellate monitoring; biotoxin production
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MDPI and ACS Style

Smith, K.F.; de Salas, M.; Adamson, J.; Rhodes, L.L. Rapid and Accurate Identification by Real-Time PCR of Biotoxin-Producing Dinoflagellates from the Family Gymnodiniaceae. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 1361-1376.

AMA Style

Smith KF, de Salas M, Adamson J, Rhodes LL. Rapid and Accurate Identification by Real-Time PCR of Biotoxin-Producing Dinoflagellates from the Family Gymnodiniaceae. Marine Drugs. 2014; 12(3):1361-1376.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Smith, Kirsty F.; de Salas, Miguel; Adamson, Janet; Rhodes, Lesley L. 2014. "Rapid and Accurate Identification by Real-Time PCR of Biotoxin-Producing Dinoflagellates from the Family Gymnodiniaceae." Mar. Drugs 12, no. 3: 1361-1376.

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