Next Article in Journal
Production of Induced Secondary Metabolites by a Co-Culture of Sponge-Associated Actinomycetes, Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163
Next Article in Special Issue
Cracking the Cytotoxicity Code: Apoptotic Induction of 10-Acetylirciformonin B is Mediated through ROS Generation and Mitochondrial Dysfunction
Previous Article in Journal
Fermentation Technologies for the Optimization of Marine Microbial Exopolysaccharide Production
Previous Article in Special Issue
In Situ Detection of Antibiotic Amphotericin B Produced in Streptomyces nodosus Using Raman Microspectroscopy
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(5), 3025-3045; doi:10.3390/md12053025
Review

Tipping Points in Seaweed Genetic Engineering: Scaling Up Opportunities in the Next Decade

1,*  and 2,*
1 Environmental Biophysics and Molecular Ecology Program, Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, 71 Dudley Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA 2 Key Lab of Coastal Biology and Bio-resource Utilization, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 17 Chunhui Road, Yantai 264003, China
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 February 2014 / Revised: 4 April 2014 / Accepted: 25 April 2014 / Published: 22 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances and New Perspectives in Marine Biotechnology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [875 KB, uploaded 24 February 2015]   |   Browse Figures

Abstract

Seaweed genetic engineering is a transgenic expression system with unique features compared with those of heterotrophic prokaryotes and higher plants. This study discusses several newly sequenced seaweed nuclear genomes and the necessity that research on vector design should consider endogenous promoters, codon optimization, and gene copy number. Seaweed viruses and artificial transposons can be applied as transformation methods after acquiring a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism of viral infections in seaweeds and transposon patterns in seaweed genomes. After cultivating transgenic algal cells and tissues in a photobioreactor, a biosafety assessment of genetically modified (GM) seaweeds must be conducted before open-sea application. We propose a set of programs for the evaluation of gene flow from GM seaweeds to local/geographical environments. The effective implementation of such programs requires fundamentally systematic and interdisciplinary studies on algal physiology and genetics, marine hydrology, reproductive biology, and ecology.
Keywords: seaweed; macroalgae; genetic engineering; GMO; gene flow; bio-safety; marine algae; transgenic algae; expression system seaweed; macroalgae; genetic engineering; GMO; gene flow; bio-safety; marine algae; transgenic algae; expression system
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote
MDPI and ACS Style

Lin, H.; Qin, S. Tipping Points in Seaweed Genetic Engineering: Scaling Up Opportunities in the Next Decade. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 3025-3045.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here

Comments

Cited By

[Return to top]
Mar. Drugs EISSN 1660-3397 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert