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Enhanced Anti-Obesity Activities of Red Mold Dioscorea When Fermented Using Deep Ocean Water as the Culture Water
Continuing Education School, National Taitung Junior College, Taitung 95045, Taiwan
Department of Food Science, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei 24205, Taiwan
Department of Life Science, National Taitung University, 684, Sec. 1, Chunghua Rd., Taitung 95092, Taiwan
Stone & Resource Industry R & D Center, Hualien 97356, Taiwan
Division, Sunway Biotechnology Company Limited, Taipei 11494, Taiwan
Department of Nutrition and Health Science, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung 83102, Taiwan
Department of Biochemical Science and Technology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 August 2013; in revised form: 11 September 2013 / Accepted: 29 September 2013 / Published: 15 October 2013
Abstract: Deep ocean water (DOW) has, in previous studies, been found to be a novel anti-obesity drink and useful in raising Monascus-produced monascin and ankaflavin levels. This may resolve the limited anti-obesity ability of red mold dioscorea (RMD) known as the Monascus purpureus-fermented Disocorea batatas. This study aims to compare the anti-obesity effect of DOW-cultured RMD (DOW-RMD) and ultra-pure water-cultured RMD (UPW-RMD) in rats fed on a high fat diet. Moreover, the effect of ions composition of DOW and DOW-influenced functional metabolites change of RMD on the differentiation and lipogenesis regulation were investigated using 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes. In the animal test, compared to UPW-RMD, DOW-RMD possessed better ability to inhibit increases in weight gain, and better feed efficiency, body-fat pad and cross-sectional area of adipocytes. In the cell test, the anti-obesity abilities of DOW-RMD in inhibiting PPARγ and C/EBPα expression in differentiation and lipoprotein lipase activity in lipogenesis were contributed to by the DOW-increased monascin and ankaflavin levels and the ions of DOW, respectively.
Keywords: deep ocean water; obesity; Monascus; monascin; ankaflavin
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MDPI and ACS Style
Wang, L.-C.; Lung, T.-Y.; Kung, Y.-H.; Wang, J.-J.; Tsai, T.-Y.; Wei, B.-L.; Pan, T.-M.; Lee, C.-L. Enhanced Anti-Obesity Activities of Red Mold Dioscorea When Fermented Using Deep Ocean Water as the Culture Water. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 3902-3925.
Wang L-C, Lung T-Y, Kung Y-H, Wang J-J, Tsai T-Y, Wei B-L, Pan T-M, Lee C-L. Enhanced Anti-Obesity Activities of Red Mold Dioscorea When Fermented Using Deep Ocean Water as the Culture Water. Marine Drugs. 2013; 11(10):3902-3925.
Wang, Li-Chun; Lung, Tzu-Ying; Kung, Yi-Hsin; Wang, Jyh-Jye; Tsai, Tsung-Yu; Wei, Bai-Luh; Pan, Tzu-Ming; Lee, Chun-Lin. 2013. "Enhanced Anti-Obesity Activities of Red Mold Dioscorea When Fermented Using Deep Ocean Water as the Culture Water." Mar. Drugs 11, no. 10: 3902-3925.