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Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(10), 3902-3925; doi:10.3390/md11103902
Article

Enhanced Anti-Obesity Activities of Red Mold Dioscorea When Fermented Using Deep Ocean Water as the Culture Water

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1 Continuing Education School, National Taitung Junior College, Taitung 95045, Taiwan 2 Department of Food Science, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei 24205, Taiwan 3 Department of Life Science, National Taitung University, 684, Sec. 1, Chunghua Rd., Taitung 95092, Taiwan 4 Stone & Resource Industry R & D Center, Hualien 97356, Taiwan 5 Division, Sunway Biotechnology Company Limited, Taipei 11494, Taiwan 6 Department of Nutrition and Health Science, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung 83102, Taiwan 7 Department of Biochemical Science and Technology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 August 2013 / Revised: 11 September 2013 / Accepted: 29 September 2013 / Published: 15 October 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances and New Perspectives in Marine Biotechnology)
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Abstract

Deep ocean water (DOW) has, in previous studies, been found to be a novel anti-obesity drink and useful in raising Monascus-produced monascin and ankaflavin levels. This may resolve the limited anti-obesity ability of red mold dioscorea (RMD) known as the Monascus purpureus-fermented Disocorea batatas. This study aims to compare the anti-obesity effect of DOW-cultured RMD (DOW-RMD) and ultra-pure water-cultured RMD (UPW-RMD) in rats fed on a high fat diet. Moreover, the effect of ions composition of DOW and DOW-influenced functional metabolites change of RMD on the differentiation and lipogenesis regulation were investigated using 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes. In the animal test, compared to UPW-RMD, DOW-RMD possessed better ability to inhibit increases in weight gain, and better feed efficiency, body-fat pad and cross-sectional area of adipocytes. In the cell test, the anti-obesity abilities of DOW-RMD in inhibiting PPARγ and C/EBPα expression in differentiation and lipoprotein lipase activity in lipogenesis were contributed to by the DOW-increased monascin and ankaflavin levels and the ions of DOW, respectively.
Keywords: deep ocean water; obesity; Monascus; monascin; ankaflavin deep ocean water; obesity; Monascus; monascin; ankaflavin
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Wang, L.-C.; Lung, T.-Y.; Kung, Y.-H.; Wang, J.-J.; Tsai, T.-Y.; Wei, B.-L.; Pan, T.-M.; Lee, C.-L. Enhanced Anti-Obesity Activities of Red Mold Dioscorea When Fermented Using Deep Ocean Water as the Culture Water. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 3902-3925.

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