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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(5), 2771-2789; doi:10.3390/md12052771

Actinomycetes from Red Sea Sponges: Sources for Chemical and Phylogenetic Diversity

1,†,* , 2
1 Department of Botany II, Julius-von-Sachs Institute for Biological Sciences, University of Würzburg, Julius-von-Sachs-Platz 3, Würzburg D-97082, Germany 2 Division of Chemical & Life Sciences and Engineering and Division of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia Permanent address: Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Minia University, Minia 61519, Egypt.
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 March 2014 / Revised: 10 April 2014 / Accepted: 14 April 2014 / Published: 12 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances and New Perspectives in Marine Biotechnology)
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The diversity of actinomycetes associated with marine sponges collected off Fsar Reef (Saudi Arabia) was investigated in the present study. Forty-seven actinomycetes were cultivated and phylogenetically identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and were assigned to 10 different actinomycete genera. Eight putatively novel species belonging to genera Kocuria, Mycobacterium, Nocardia, and Rhodococcus were identified based on sequence similarity values below 98.2% to other 16S rRNA gene sequences available in the NCBI database. PCR-based screening for biosynthetic genes including type I and type II polyketide synthases (PKS-I, PKS-II) as well as nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) showed that 20 actinomycete isolates encoded each at least one type of biosynthetic gene. The organic extracts of nine isolates displayed bioactivity against at least one of the test pathogens, which were Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, human parasites, as well as in a West Nile Virus protease enzymatic assay. These results emphasize that marine sponges are a prolific resource for novel bioactive actinomycetes with potential for drug discovery.
Keywords: PKS I; PKS II; NRPS; Red Sea; sponges; actinomycetes; bioactivity PKS I; PKS II; NRPS; Red Sea; sponges; actinomycetes; bioactivity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Abdelmohsen, U.R.; Yang, C.; Horn, H.; Hajjar, D.; Ravasi, T.; Hentschel, U. Actinomycetes from Red Sea Sponges: Sources for Chemical and Phylogenetic Diversity. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 2771-2789.

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