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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(5), 2471-2484; doi:10.3390/md12052471

Antiplatelet and Anticoagulant Effects of Diterpenes Isolated from the Marine Alga, Dictyota menstrualis

2, 2
Received: 12 December 2013 / Revised: 1 April 2014 / Accepted: 3 April 2014 / Published: 30 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances and New Perspectives in Marine Biotechnology)
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Cardiovascular diseases represent a major cause of disability and death worldwide. Therapeutics are available, but they often have unsatisfactory results and may produce side effects. Alternative treatments based on the use of natural products have been extensively investigated, because of their low toxicity and side effects. Marine organisms are prime candidates for such products, as they are sources of numerous and complex substances with ecological and pharmacological effects. In this work, we investigated, through in vitro experiments, the effects of three diterpenes (pachydictyol A, isopachydictyol A and dichotomanol) from the Brazilian marine alga, Dictyota menstrualis, on platelet aggregation and plasma coagulation. Results showed that dichotomanol inhibited ADP- or collagen-induced aggregation of platelet-rich plasma (PRP), but failed to inhibit washed platelets (WP). In contrast, pachydictyol A and isopachydictyol A failed to inhibit the aggregation of PRP, but inhibited WP aggregation induced by collagen or thrombin. These diterpenes also inhibited coagulation analyzed by the prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time and on commercial fibrinogen. Moreover, diterpenes inhibited the catalytic activity of thrombin. Theoretical studies using the Osiris Property Explorer software showed that diterpenes have low theoretical toxicity profiles and a drug-score similar to commercial anticoagulant drugs. In conclusion, these diterpenes are promising candidates for use in anticoagulant therapy, and this study also highlights the biotechnological potential of oceans and the importance of bioprospecting to develop medicines.
Keywords: anticoagulant effect; antiplatelet activity; brown algae; Dictyota menstrualis; diterpenes anticoagulant effect; antiplatelet activity; brown algae; Dictyota menstrualis; diterpenes
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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de Andrade Moura, L.; Marqui de Almeida, A.C.; Domingos, T.F.S.; Ortiz-Ramirez, F.; Cavalcanti, D.N.; Teixeira, V.L.; Fuly, A.L. Antiplatelet and Anticoagulant Effects of Diterpenes Isolated from the Marine Alga, Dictyota menstrualis. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 2471-2484.

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