Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(5), 2827-2839; doi:10.3390/md12052827
Article

In Situ Detection of Antibiotic Amphotericin B Produced in Streptomyces nodosus Using Raman Microspectroscopy

1email, 1,2,3email, 2email, 1,2,3email, 2,4email and 1,2,3,* email
Received: 17 March 2014; in revised form: 17 April 2014 / Accepted: 24 April 2014 / Published: 13 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances and New Perspectives in Marine Biotechnology)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The study of spatial distribution of secondary metabolites within microbial cells facilitates the screening of candidate strains from marine environments for functional metabolites and allows for the subsequent assessment of the production of metabolites, such as antibiotics. This paper demonstrates the first application of Raman microspectroscopy for in situ detection of the antifungal antibiotic amphotericin B (AmB) produced by actinomycetes—Streptomyces nodosus. Raman spectra measured from hyphae of S. nodosus show the specific Raman bands, caused by resonance enhancement, corresponding to the polyene chain of AmB. In addition, Raman microspectroscopy enabled us to monitor the time-dependent change of AmB production corresponding to the growth of mycelia. The Raman images of S. nodosus reveal the heterogeneous distribution of AmB within the mycelia and individual hyphae. Moreover, the molecular association state of AmB in the mycelia was directly identified by observed Raman spectral shifts. These findings suggest that Raman microspectroscopy could be used for in situ monitoring of antibiotic production directly in marine microorganisms with a method that is non-destructive and does not require labeling.
Keywords: Raman microspectroscopy; in situ detection; antibiotics; secondary metabolites; actinomycetes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Miyaoka, R.; Hosokawa, M.; Ando, M.; Mori, T.; Hamaguchi, H.-O.; Takeyama, H. In Situ Detection of Antibiotic Amphotericin B Produced in Streptomyces nodosus Using Raman Microspectroscopy. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 2827-2839.

AMA Style

Miyaoka R, Hosokawa M, Ando M, Mori T, Hamaguchi H-O, Takeyama H. In Situ Detection of Antibiotic Amphotericin B Produced in Streptomyces nodosus Using Raman Microspectroscopy. Marine Drugs. 2014; 12(5):2827-2839.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Miyaoka, Rimi; Hosokawa, Masahito; Ando, Masahiro; Mori, Tetsushi; Hamaguchi, Hiro-o; Takeyama, Haruko. 2014. "In Situ Detection of Antibiotic Amphotericin B Produced in Streptomyces nodosus Using Raman Microspectroscopy." Mar. Drugs 12, no. 5: 2827-2839.

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