Topic Editors

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931, USA
Prof. Dr. Jie Ji
School of Civil and Transportation Engineering, Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Beijing 100044, China
School of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410114, China
School of Transportation, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, China
1. School of Transportation Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 73 Huanghe Rd., Harbin 150090, China
2. Institute of Highway Engineering Aachen, RWTH Aachen University, Mies-van-der-Rohe-Straße 1, 52074 Aachen, Germany
Faculty of Architecture, Civil and Transportation Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China

Advanced Technology and Development in the Pavement Materials

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 March 2022)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 July 2022)
Viewed by
27782

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

The auto industry continuously produces new cars to fulfill the living needs of humankind, especially the explosive development of new energy and heavy load vehicles. Subsequently, we need to build more roads or more durable infrastructures to meet these demands. With the rapid development of infrastructures worldwide, the requirements of pavement materials and structures are becoming stricter and more rigorous, and this effect induces the updated technology and development of materials from different perspectives. The development of pavement materials includes two main parts: testing and simulation. The testing aspect needs researchers to update the test methods or manuals, and to renew different materials and composites from different areas used in pavement engineering. Simulation requires that researchers explore the mechanisms between these materials and gain an understanding of the behaviors of each load or stress at different conditions. The results may guide us in making materials that are more durable with high strength. This Special Issue focuses on the recent developments in and emerging technology of cementitious materials terms of both testing and simulation. This research topic also provides a platform for researchers to communicate with each other. We invite authors to submit original research articles and review articles to the Special Issue. Potential topics include, but are not limited to: (1) advanced materials for infrastructure engineering; (2) simulation techniques for cementitious materials; (3) characterization of cementitious materials; (4) advanced/emerging technologies for infrastructure strategies; (5) recycling materials and environmental protection measures; (6) artificial intelligence (AI)/mathematics-based tools for cementitious materials.

Prof. Dr. Qingli (Barbara) Dai
Prof. Dr. Jie Ji
Prof. Dr. Songtao Lv
Prof. Dr. Tao Ma
Prof. Dr. Dawei Wang
Prof. Dr. Hui Yao
Topic Editors

Keywords

  •  asphalt
  •  pavement materials
  •  numerical simulation
  •  computational analysis
  •  characterization of cementitious materials

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Crystals
crystals
2.7 3.6 2011 10.6 Days CHF 2600
Sustainability
sustainability
3.9 5.8 2009 18.8 Days CHF 2400

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Published Papers (12 papers)

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17 pages, 6267 KiB  
Article
Structural Performance Assessment of Geothermal Asphalt Pavements: A Comparative Experimental Study
by Mohamed Ezzat Al-Atroush, Abdulrahman Marouf, Mansour Aloufi, Mohamed Marouf, Tamer A. Sebaey and Yasser E. Ibrahim
Sustainability 2022, 14(19), 12855; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141912855 - 9 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1628
Abstract
This paper introduces shallow geothermal systems as a potential solution for improving the thermo-mechanical performance of asphalt under extreme climate events. With the recent changes experienced in the climate, earlier infrastructure failure can be expected, predominantly for temperature-sensitive flexible pavements. With that in [...] Read more.
This paper introduces shallow geothermal systems as a potential solution for improving the thermo-mechanical performance of asphalt under extreme climate events. With the recent changes experienced in the climate, earlier infrastructure failure can be expected, predominantly for temperature-sensitive flexible pavements. With that in mind, the efficiency of geothermal systems in terms of heating and cooling was comprehensively argued in many studies. However, very limited studies discussed the structural performance of geothermal pavements. This study conducted a comparative experimental study to assess the change in the compressive and flexural strengths of asphalt under extreme heating and cooling conditions and to evaluate the change in asphalt structural performance due to integrating different types of geothermal pipes into the asphalt structure. This comparative analysis employed thirty-three asphalt specimens with and without copper and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) geothermal pipes. The results of this study show that the geothermal pipes negatively affected the compressive strength of the asphalt at a normal average temperature. However, their effect was relatively minimal on the asphalt (AC) compressive strength under extreme heating and cooling conditions. In contrast, under three thermal conditions—normal, heating, and cooling temperatures—the flexure strength of the AC was significantly improved by 14.3%, 85%, and 70%, respectively, due to the copper pipe integration into the AC. The study concluded that copper pipes were superior to PVC ones in terms of enhancing the AC structural performance. Full article
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22 pages, 5784 KiB  
Article
Rail Sample Laboratory Evaluation of Eddy Current Rail Inspection Sustainable System
by Jiaqing Wang, Qingli Dai, Pasi Lautala, Hui Yao and Ruizhe Si
Sustainability 2022, 14(18), 11568; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141811568 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1649
Abstract
Increasing the efficiency, frequency, and speed of rail defect detection can reduce maintenance costs and improve the sustainability of railways. The non-contact eddy current (EC) system can be operated along with a railcar for detecting rail flaws. Even if the EC can be [...] Read more.
Increasing the efficiency, frequency, and speed of rail defect detection can reduce maintenance costs and improve the sustainability of railways. The non-contact eddy current (EC) system can be operated along with a railcar for detecting rail flaws. Even if the EC can be utilized for rail defect identification and characterization, current commercial devices are not sufficient for defect classification on rails by providing highly sensitive signals for post-processing. In this study, we established an efficient and expandable eddy current rail inspection system and verified its capability for classification of different defect signals. The integrated hardware and software EC measurement system was firstly applied to detect notched cracks in steel samples with different crack depths and angles. The measured voltage and current analog inputs from the eddy current sensor were acquired and processed with a fast Fourier transformation (FFT) algorithm in the LabVIEW platform. The real-time impedance was then obtained by transferring signals to a normalized impedance plane plot. The processed EC signals showed adequate sensitivity and efficiency with changes of notched crack depths and angles during the sensor movement. A comparative case study on field rail samples was then conducted to examine the feasibility and capability of the established system on different types of actual rail defects. The experimental analysis and case study results demonstrate that the integrated eddy current system could possibly be used for non-destructive rail crack inspection and classification. The enhanced detection capability (especially on subsurface cracks) and real-time post-processing technique could further contribute to improving rail-life sustainability. Full article
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12 pages, 5848 KiB  
Article
Crystallinity of Bitumen via WAXD and DSC and Its Effect on the Surface Microstructure
by Georgios Pipintakos, Hilde Soenen, Bart Goderis, Johan Blom and Xiaohu Lu
Crystals 2022, 12(6), 755; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12060755 - 24 May 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2223
Abstract
It is well documented that most bituminous binders contain crystallisable material. This crystallisable fraction, often referred to as paraffinic or natural wax, is associated with the bitumen’s origin and has an influence on its rheological performance. In the literature, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) [...] Read more.
It is well documented that most bituminous binders contain crystallisable material. This crystallisable fraction, often referred to as paraffinic or natural wax, is associated with the bitumen’s origin and has an influence on its rheological performance. In the literature, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) is the primary technique used to determine the melting and crystallisation behaviour of this waxy fraction. However, in bitumen, thermal transitions in DSC are typically very broad and can be combined with recrystallisation effects upon reheating. This work explores the potential crystallisation and melting process of a waxy and a wax-free bitumen via three different approaches: DSC, Wide-Angle X-ray Diffraction (WAXD) and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM). The findings reveal that the DSC transitions of the waxy bitumen are in good agreement with the corresponding occurrence of WAXD signals and to some extent with the formation and disappearance of the surface microstructures which were followed at two cooling and heating rates. WAXD results additionally demonstrate that the crystalline material in bitumen is organised in an orthorhombic unit cell, typical for straight chain aliphatic structures. On the other hand, DSC and WAXD support the lack of crystallinity for the wax-free bitumen which could explain its featureless CLSM surface. Overall, the originality of this work resides in the disclosure of connections between crystallographic properties, thermal transitions and the surface micromorphology of bitumen. Full article
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17 pages, 5843 KiB  
Project Report
When Physical Chemistry Meets Circular Economy to Solve Environmental Issues: How the ReScA Project Aims at Using Waste Pyrolysis Products to Improve and Rejuvenate Bitumens
by Paolino Caputo, Pietro Calandra, Valeria Loise, Adolfo Le Pera, Ana-Maria Putz, Abraham A. Abe, Luigi Madeo, Bagdat Teltayev, Maria Laura Luprano, Michela Alfè, Valentina Gargiulo, Giovanna Ruoppolo and Cesare Oliviero Rossi
Sustainability 2022, 14(10), 5790; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14105790 - 10 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2213
Abstract
Urban waste management is a hard task: more than 30% of the world’s total production of Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW) is not adequately handled, with landfilling remaining as a common practice. Another source of wastes is the road pavement industry: with a service [...] Read more.
Urban waste management is a hard task: more than 30% of the world’s total production of Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW) is not adequately handled, with landfilling remaining as a common practice. Another source of wastes is the road pavement industry: with a service life of about 10–15 years, asphalts become stiff, susceptible to cracks, and therefore no longer adapted for road paving, so they become wastes. To simultaneously solve these problems, a circular economy-based approach is proposed by the ReScA project, suggesting the use of pyrolysis to treat MSW (or its fractions as Refuse Derived Fuels, RDFs), whose residues (oil and char) can be used as added-value ingredients for the asphalt cycle. Char can be used to prepare better performing and durable asphalts, and oil can be used to regenerate exhaust asphalts, avoiding their landfilling. The proposed approach provides a different and more useful pathway in the end-of-waste (EoW) cycle of urban wastes. This proof of concept is suggested by the following two observations: (i) char is made up by carbonaceous particles highly compatible with the organic nature of bitumens, so its addition can reinforce the overall bitumen structure, increasing its mechanical properties and slowing down the molecular kinetics of its aging process; (ii) oil is rich in hydrocarbons, so it can enrich the poor fraction of the maltene phase in exhaust asphalts. These hypotheses have been proved by testing the residues derived from the pyrolysis of RDFs for the improvement of mechanical characteristics of a representative bitumen sample and its regeneration after aging. The proposed approach is suggested by the physico-chemical study of the materials involved, and aims to show how the chemical knowledge of complex systems, like bituminous materials, can help in solving environmental issues. We hope that this approach will be considered as a model method for the future. Full article
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32 pages, 2298 KiB  
Review
Application of the Viscoelastic Continuum Damage Theory to Study the Fatigue Performance of Asphalt Mixtures—A Literature Review
by Andrise Klug, Andressa Ng and Adalberto Faxina
Sustainability 2022, 14(9), 4973; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14094973 - 21 Apr 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2395
Abstract
A viscoelastic continuum damage (VECD) model, which accounts for the effects of rate-dependent damage growth, has been successfully applied to quantify the reduction in the material integrity as a function of damage accumulation (characteristic curve) of asphalt mixtures. This paper presents an overview [...] Read more.
A viscoelastic continuum damage (VECD) model, which accounts for the effects of rate-dependent damage growth, has been successfully applied to quantify the reduction in the material integrity as a function of damage accumulation (characteristic curve) of asphalt mixtures. This paper presents an overview of the fundamentals of the VECD model and its simplifications (S-VECD) applied to the damage characterization of asphalt mixtures. It also presents a laboratory study carried out to evaluate the effects of the addition of reclaimed asphalt pavements (RAP) and a new binder (PG 64-22 or PG 58-16) on the fatigue performance of fine aggregate matrices (FAMs), in which the S-VECD theory was applied to analyze the results. The addition of RAP increased the stiffness and reduced the relaxation rate, resulting in FAMs that were stiffer and more susceptible to damage at high strain levels. The FAMs’ fatigue factors (FFFAM) indicated that the increase in RAP from 20% to 40% decreased the fatigue life of the mixtures. A strict control of the mixture variables is required, since the intrinsic heterogeneity of asphalt mixtures can lead to different characteristic curves for the same material. Full article
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14 pages, 2661 KiB  
Article
A Compound Damage Constitutive Model Considering Deformation of Nonpersistent Fractured Rock Masses
by Lielie Li, Xianhua Yao, Jialiang Wang, Yiying Zhang and Longfei Zhang
Crystals 2022, 12(3), 352; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12030352 - 4 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1453
Abstract
This paper describes a study on the interaction between joint fissures in a nonpersistent jointed rock mass by introducing a self-consistent methodology, amending the traditional method of self-consistency by increasing the number of joints one by one, and deducing a new compound mesoscale [...] Read more.
This paper describes a study on the interaction between joint fissures in a nonpersistent jointed rock mass by introducing a self-consistent methodology, amending the traditional method of self-consistency by increasing the number of joints one by one, and deducing a new compound mesoscale and macroscale constitutive damage model based on the Betti energy reciprocity theorem. By analyzing the Mohr–Coulomb failure criterion and generalized von Mises yield criterion and their impact on the calculation result of macroscopic damage, the generalized von Mises criterion is proven to be more appropriate, and it is, thus, chosen for this compound damage constitutive model. Comparing the theoretical calculation and laboratory results of the compound damage model with the existing theoretical calculation results indicates the following: 1. The compound damage model in this paper provides a better fit of the stress–strain curves from the laboratory tests. 2. The theoretical calculative results for the compound damage model in this paper are consistent with the experimental results; that is, the peak load decreases as the connectivity rate increases. 3. For different joint angles and connectivity rates, the overall absolute deviations and relative deviations of the peak stress from the theoretical calculations and the laboratory tests are less than those from the theoretical calculations provided in the original literature. The theoretical calculations of the compound damage model in this paper are more aligned with the experimental results, verifying its correctness and rationality. Full article
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18 pages, 9004 KiB  
Article
Study on the Skid Resistance Deterioration Behavior of the SMA Pavement
by Jincheng Wei, Zhengchao Zhang, Yulin He, Qianwen Tan, Xiangpeng Yang, Dawei Wang and Markus Oeser
Sustainability 2022, 14(5), 2864; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14052864 - 1 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2444
Abstract
The skid resistance of asphalt pavement is of great importance to the driving safety, but deterioration of pavement skid resistance is inevitable owing to the coupling effect of traffic loading and climate conditions. The existing prediction models of skid resistance were mainly established [...] Read more.
The skid resistance of asphalt pavement is of great importance to the driving safety, but deterioration of pavement skid resistance is inevitable owing to the coupling effect of traffic loading and climate conditions. The existing prediction models of skid resistance were mainly established based on the laboratory accelerated polishing tests (for instance Polished Stone Value, PSV), and these models can only consider the influence of a single factor; they fail to reflect the coupling effect of different factors under the real service condition. For the purpose of investigating the influences of seasonal variation, and aggregate type on the skid resistance of asphalt pavement, the skid resistance of three test tracks were continuously measured for 48 months through five different test methods. The results show that different test methods exhibit significant inconsistency. The aggregate type is the internal factor that determines the long-term skid resistance performance of pavement. The skid resistances of the selected test tracks were ranked as greywacke pavement > diabase pavement > rhyolite pavement. This is in well agreement with the ranking of aggregate polishing resistance obtained from the laboratory Wehner/Schulze (W/S) test. This indicates that the W/S test is effective in distinguishing the aggregates that used in pavement construction. It is also found that the skid resistance of asphalt pavement shows significant fluctuation with respect to seasonal variation. The skid resistance is generally high in autumn and low in summer. Therefore, it is suggested to use the low measurement value of skid resistance in summer as the lower limit for the evaluation and prediction of the skid resistance performance of asphalt pavement. Full article
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17 pages, 4113 KiB  
Article
A Test Method to Evaluate the Adhesive Property between Asphalt and Aggregate Based on Simulating Actual Working Conditions
by Jianhua Liu, Mutian Sun, Shaoming Wu, Wenyuan Huang, Zhenyang Fan and Xiaobo Du
Sustainability 2022, 14(4), 2160; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14042160 - 14 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1550
Abstract
The adhesive property between asphalt and aggregate is a crucial factor that affects the resistance of asphalt pavement to moisture damage. In this study, by simulating the actual working conditions of asphalt–aggregate bonding characteristics, test equipment was developed and a method for evaluating [...] Read more.
The adhesive property between asphalt and aggregate is a crucial factor that affects the resistance of asphalt pavement to moisture damage. In this study, by simulating the actual working conditions of asphalt–aggregate bonding characteristics, test equipment was developed and a method for evaluating the adhesive properties between asphalt and aggregate—the brush damage test—was proposed. A steel-wire brush as the brush type, a total of 0.5 kg/m2 asphalt content, 70 °C as the maintenance temperature, and 4 h as the maintenance time, as well as mass loss rate (ML) of specimens before and after brushing, were used as the evaluation index. The brush damage test was conducted on five commonly used asphalt binders and two commonly used aggregates. Finally, the results of the brush damage test were analyzed in comparison with those of a binder bond strength (BBS) test. It was indicated that the evaluation results for the adhesive properties between asphalt and aggregate were not consistent under the two test methods. The pull-off tensile strength under dry conditions (POTSdry) and under wet conditions (POTSwet) when ignoring the influence of the texture of aggregate did not reflect the adhesive properties. ΔPOTS, representing the ability of asphalt to resist the loss of adhesion strength due to moisture damage, can be used to evaluate the adhesion properties between asphalt and aggregate. Under appropriate conditions, the brush damage test has the advantages of simple operation, high credibility, and good discrimination. Full article
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11 pages, 4457 KiB  
Article
Impregnating Compound for Cement-Concrete Road Pavement
by Rauan Lukpanov, Duman Dyusembinov, Zhanbolat Shakhmov, Denis Tsygulov, Yelaman Aibuldinov and Nikolai Ivanovich Vatin
Crystals 2022, 12(2), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12020161 - 24 Jan 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2710
Abstract
The paper proposes an impregnation composition for cement concrete roads used as an ice-phobic coating. The composition has been made based on keratin-containing components derived from animal waste with the addition of water-soluble polymers. The main parameter of serviceability of the coating impregnated [...] Read more.
The paper proposes an impregnation composition for cement concrete roads used as an ice-phobic coating. The composition has been made based on keratin-containing components derived from animal waste with the addition of water-soluble polymers. The main parameter of serviceability of the coating impregnated with the developed composition was assessing the adhesion resistance of ice crust to concrete under the influence of mechanical loads. For this purpose, tests of big specimens (surface area 1925 cm2) in laboratory conditions with application of vibration and impact loads and modelling of thermal stresses were conducted. The test results showed the effectiveness of the ice-coating, as in all experiments, the uncoated specimens showed a greater resistance of the ice crust to mechanical stresses. An additional evaluation parameter was comparing the water absorption capacity of coated and uncoated concrete. The test results showed a significant difference in the water absorption capacity of the uncoated specimens, exceeding the coated specimens by 47%. Due to the results obtained, it will be possible to use the impregnation compound effectively to improve the ice resistance of cement concrete coatings. Full article
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11 pages, 3521 KiB  
Article
Methodology for Interactive Labeling of Patched Asphalt Pavement Images Based on U-Net Convolutional Neural Network
by Han-Cheng Dan, Hao-Fan Zeng, Zhi-Heng Zhu, Ge-Wen Bai and Wei Cao
Sustainability 2022, 14(2), 861; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14020861 - 12 Jan 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1714
Abstract
Image recognition based on deep learning generally demands a huge sample size for training, for which the image labeling becomes inevitably laborious and time-consuming. In the case of evaluating the pavement quality condition, many pavement distress patching images would need manual screening and [...] Read more.
Image recognition based on deep learning generally demands a huge sample size for training, for which the image labeling becomes inevitably laborious and time-consuming. In the case of evaluating the pavement quality condition, many pavement distress patching images would need manual screening and labeling, meanwhile the subjectivity of the labeling personnel would greatly affect the accuracy of image labeling. In this study, in order for an accurate and efficient recognition of the pavement patching images, an interactive labeling method is proposed based on the U-Net convolutional neural network, using active learning combined with reverse and correction labeling. According to the calculation results in this paper, the sample size required by the interactive labeling is about half of the traditional labeling method for the same recognition precision. Meanwhile, the accuracy of interactive labeling method based on the mean intersection over union (mean_IOU) index is 6% higher than that of the traditional method using the same sample size and training epochs. In addition, the accuracy analysis of the noise and boundary of the prediction results shows that this method eliminates 92% of the noise in the predictions (the proportion of noise is reduced from 13.85% to 1.06%), and the image definition is improved by 14.1% in terms of the boundary gray area ratio. The interactive labeling is considered as a significantly valuable approach, as it reduces the sample size in each epoch of active learning, greatly alleviates the demand for manpower, and improves learning efficiency and accuracy. Full article
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14 pages, 2427 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Grouting Material Mixture Ratio Based on Multi-Objective Optimization and Multi-Attribute Decision-Making
by Luchang Xiong, Zhaoyang Zhang, Zhijun Wan, Yuan Zhang, Ziqi Wang and Jiakun Lv
Sustainability 2022, 14(1), 399; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14010399 - 31 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2851
Abstract
As a solid waste produced by coal combustion, fly ash will cause serious environmental pollution. However, it can be considered as a sustainable and renewable resource to replace partial cement in grouting materials. Fly ash grouting materials re-cement the broken rock mass and [...] Read more.
As a solid waste produced by coal combustion, fly ash will cause serious environmental pollution. However, it can be considered as a sustainable and renewable resource to replace partial cement in grouting materials. Fly ash grouting materials re-cement the broken rock mass and improve the mechanical properties of the original structure. It can reinforce the broken surrounding rock of mine roadway. The utilization of fly ash also reduces environmental pollution. Therefore, this paper establishes a new material mixture ratio optimization model to meet the requirement of material property through combining the methods of experimental design and numerical analysis. Based on the Box–Behnken design with 3 factors and 3 levels, a mathematical model is constructed to fit the nonlinear multiple regression functions between material properties and raw materials ratios. The influence of raw materials is analyzed on material properties (the material’s 7-day uniaxial compressive strength, initial setting time, and slurry viscosity). Then, 80 Pareto solutions are obtained through NASG-II algorithm which takes the regression functions as the objective functions for multi-objective optimization of the grouting material ratio. Finally, the best ratio solution of water-cement ratio—0.71, silica fume content—1.73%, and sodium silicate content—2.61% is obtained through the NNRP-TOPSIS method. Full article
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17 pages, 2337 KiB  
Article
Effect of Glass Cullet Size and Hydrated Lime—Nanoclay Additives on the Mechanical Properties of Glassphalt Concrete
by Cansu İskender, Erol İskender, Atakan Aksoy and Celaleddin Ensar Şengül
Sustainability 2021, 13(23), 13284; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132313284 - 30 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1964
Abstract
In this study, the use of glass waste as aggregate in asphalt mixtures was investigated. Maximum glass aggregate size options of 0.075, 2.00, 4.75 and 9.5 mm. were selected. Conventional bitumen, nanoclay-modified bitumen and hydrated lime-modified bitumen were used. Dense graded asphalt mixtures [...] Read more.
In this study, the use of glass waste as aggregate in asphalt mixtures was investigated. Maximum glass aggregate size options of 0.075, 2.00, 4.75 and 9.5 mm. were selected. Conventional bitumen, nanoclay-modified bitumen and hydrated lime-modified bitumen were used. Dense graded asphalt mixtures were designed according to the Marshall method. Mixtures were evaluated for low-temperature cracking, resistance to water damage, fatigue, and permanent deformation behavior with repeated creep, indirect tensile strength, indirect tensile fatigue, modified Lottman and Hamburg wheel tracking tests. Increasing glass aggregate size reduced the water damage resistance of asphalt mixtures because of the smooth surface of the glass particles and nanoclay and hydrated lime modification improved the mechanical properties of the asphalt mixtures. Using 2.00 mm sized maximum glass aggregate showed relatively less water damage and deformation properties due to higher internal friction which is due to the greater angularity of the glass particles. In addition, there was a significant correlation between repeated creep test, modified Lottman methods and Hamburg Wheel tracking test from the viewpoint of deformation and water damage assessments. Full article
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