Topic Editors

School of Energy and Power Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China
Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian, China

Formation, Exploration and Development of Natural Gas Hydrate

Abstract submission deadline
closed (30 April 2024)
Manuscript submission deadline
31 July 2024
Viewed by
6834

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

We cordially invite you to submit your manuscript to our Topic on the subject area of the “Formation, Exploration and Development of Natural Gas Hydrates”. Natural gas hydrates hold between 5 and 22 percent of the Earth’s total organic carbon and could be a bridge-fuel to renewable energy sources. Although some pilot productions of natural gas hydrates have been carried out in some countries, some unforeseen problems still remain that limit the commercial exploitation of this fuel source. Comprehensive research on the properties and formation of natural gas hydrates is paramount to guaranteeing its efficient and effective exploration and development. In-depth studies on the basic properties of natural gas hydrates' formation and dissociation can provide significant guidance for their exploration and development. Best practices on its exploration and development, in turn, can also give useful insights into its formation and dissociation. This Topic aims to present the state-of-the-art research in a variety of topics with the goal of promoting the development of natural gas hydrate.

Topics of interest for publication include, but are not limited to:

  • Phase change behaviors of natural gas hydrates;
  • Multiphase seepage characteristics of natural gas hydrates;
  • Heat and mass transfer in natural gas hydrates;
  • Promotion or inhibition method for the formation of natural gas hydrates;
  • Exploration techniques for natural gas hydrates;
  • High-efficiency and safe development method of natural gas hydrates;
  • Gas hydrates in flow assurance;
  • Applications of gas hydrates in energy and environment.

Dr. Lunxiang Zhang
Dr. Hongsheng Dong
Topic Editors

Keywords

  •  natural gas hydrates
  •  hydrate formation
  •  hydration exploration
  •  hydrate development
  •  phase change
  •  hydrate-based technology
  •  flow assurance

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Energies
energies
3.2 5.5 2008 16.1 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
jmse
2.9 3.7 2013 15.4 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Materials
materials
3.4 5.2 2008 13.9 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Minerals
minerals
2.5 3.9 2011 18.7 Days CHF 2400 Submit
Molecules
molecules
4.6 6.7 1996 14.6 Days CHF 2700 Submit
Gases
gases
- - 2021 15.0 days * CHF 1000 Submit

* Median value for all MDPI journals in the second half of 2023.


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Published Papers (7 papers)

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28 pages, 11687 KiB  
Review
A Review on Submarine Geological Risks and Secondary Disaster Issues during Natural Gas Hydrate Depressurization Production
by Xianzhuang Ma, Yujing Jiang, Peng Yan, Hengjie Luan, Changsheng Wang, Qinglin Shan and Xianzhen Cheng
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(5), 840; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12050840 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 423
Abstract
The safe and efficient production of marine natural gas hydrates faces the challenges of seabed geological risk issues. Geological risk issues can be categorized from weak to strong threats in four aspects: sand production, wellbore instability, seafloor subsidence, and submarine landslides, with the [...] Read more.
The safe and efficient production of marine natural gas hydrates faces the challenges of seabed geological risk issues. Geological risk issues can be categorized from weak to strong threats in four aspects: sand production, wellbore instability, seafloor subsidence, and submarine landslides, with the potential risk of natural gas leakage, and the geological risk problems that can cause secondary disasters dominated by gas eruptions and seawater intrusion. If the gas in a reservoir is not discharged in a smooth and timely manner during production, it can build up inside the formation to form super pore pressure leading to a sudden gas eruption when the overburden is damaged. There is a high risk of overburden destabilization around production wells, and reservoirs are prone to forming a connection with the seafloor resulting in seawater intrusion under osmotic pressure. This paper summarizes the application of field observation, experimental research, and numerical simulation methods in evaluating the stability problem of the seafloor surface. The theoretical model of multi-field coupling can be used to describe and evaluate the seafloor geologic risk issues during depressurization production, and the controlling equations accurately describing the characteristics of the reservoir are the key theoretical basis for evaluating the stability of the seafloor geomechanics. It is necessary to seek a balance between submarine formation stability and reservoir production efficiency in order to assess the optimal production and predict the region of plastic damage in the reservoir. Prediction and assessment allow measures to be taken at fixed points to improve reservoir mechanical stability with the numerical simulation method. Hydrate reservoirs need to be filled with gravel to enhance mechanical strength and permeability, and overburden need to be grouted to reinforce stability. Full article
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18 pages, 4110 KiB  
Article
Effect of Entrainment on the Liquid Film Behavior in Pipe Elbows
by Zhenqiang Xie and Xuewen Cao
Energies 2024, 17(8), 1983; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17081983 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 489
Abstract
Multiphase flow entrainment in natural gas engineering significantly influences the safety and efficiency of oil companies since it affects both the flow and the heat transfer process, but its mechanisms are not fully understood. Additionally, current computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methodologies seldom consider [...] Read more.
Multiphase flow entrainment in natural gas engineering significantly influences the safety and efficiency of oil companies since it affects both the flow and the heat transfer process, but its mechanisms are not fully understood. Additionally, current computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methodologies seldom consider entrainment behavioral changes in pipe elbows. In this article, a verified CFD method is used to study the entrainment behavior, mechanism, and changes in an elbow. The results show that droplet diameter in a developed annular flow follows a negative skewness distribution; as the radial distance (from the wall) increases, the fluctuation in the droplets becomes stronger, and the velocity difference between the gas and the droplets increases linearly. Turbulence bursts and vortices sucking near the wall jointly contribute to droplet entrainment. As the annular flow enters the elbow, the secondary flow promotes the film expansion to the upper and lower parts of the pipe. Droplets re-occur near the elbow exit intrados, and their size is much smaller than those in the upstream pipe. Vortices sucking under low gas velocity play an important role in this process. These findings provide guidelines for safety and flow assurance issues in natural gas production and transportation and bridge the gap between multiphase flow theory and natural gas engineering. Full article
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21 pages, 31521 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation of Production Behavior with Different Complex Structure Well Types in Class 1-Type Hydrate Reservoir
by Tinghui Wan, Zhanzhao Li, Mingming Wen, Zongheng Chen, Lieyu Tian, Qi Li, Jia Qu and Jingli Wang
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(3), 508; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12030508 - 19 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 598
Abstract
Enhancing the production capacity of natural gas hydrates (NGHs) is critical for its commercial development. Complex structure wells may efficiently increase drainage areas while enhancing exploitation efficiency. Based on the field data of China’s first offshore NGH test production, the numerical method was [...] Read more.
Enhancing the production capacity of natural gas hydrates (NGHs) is critical for its commercial development. Complex structure wells may efficiently increase drainage areas while enhancing exploitation efficiency. Based on the field data of China’s first offshore NGH test production, the numerical method was used to analyze the production performance of different complex structure well types by continuous depressurization production for 360 days under the preconditions of fixed effective completion length of 300 m and a pressure difference of 6 MPa. Results indicated that the complex structure well types deployed at the three-phase layer demonstrated superior production performance within 240 days of production; the DLW2 and HW2 well types stood out, with an average gas production rate Qg reaching 43,333 m3/d and a specific production index J of 24.1. After 360 days of production, benefiting from multi-layer combined production, the Cluster vertical well deployed at the multi-layer had the best production performance, with an average Qg of 34,444 m3/d and a J-index of 19.1. The research results provided insights into the complex structure well-type selection strategy for NGH depressurization in this sea area. Full article
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21 pages, 13437 KiB  
Article
Controlling Factors of Vertical Geochemical Variations in Hydrate-Rich Sediments at the Site GMGS5-W08 in the Qiongdongnan Basin, Northern South China Sea
by Huaxin Liu, Meijun Li, Hongfei Lai, Ying Fu, Zenggui Kuang and Yunxin Fang
Energies 2024, 17(2), 412; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17020412 - 14 Jan 2024
Viewed by 792
Abstract
Large amounts of natural gas hydrates have been discovered in the Qiongdongnan Basin (QDNB), South China Sea. The chemical and stable carbon isotopic composition shows that the hydrate-bound gas was a mixture of thermogenic and microbial gases. It is estimated that microbial gas [...] Read more.
Large amounts of natural gas hydrates have been discovered in the Qiongdongnan Basin (QDNB), South China Sea. The chemical and stable carbon isotopic composition shows that the hydrate-bound gas was a mixture of thermogenic and microbial gases. It is estimated that microbial gas accounts for 40.96% to 60.58%, showing a trend of decrease with the increase in burial depth. A significant amount of gas hydrates is thought to be stored in the mass transport deposits (MTDs), exhibiting vertical superposition characteristics. The stable carbon isotopic values of methane (δ13C1) in the MTD1, located near the seabed, are less than −55‰, while those of the methane below the bottom boundary of MTD3 are all higher than −55‰. The pure structure I (sI) and structure II (sII) gas hydrates were discovered at the depths of 8 mbsf and 145.65 mbsf, respectively, with mixed sI and sII gas hydrates occurring in the depth range 58–144 mbsf. In addition, a series of indigenous organic matters and allochthonous hydrocarbons were extracted from the hydrate-bearing sediments, which were characterized by the origin of immature terrigenous organic matter and low-moderate mature marine algal/bacterial materials, respectively. More allochthonous (migrated) hydrocarbons were also discovered in the sediments below the bottom boundary of MTD3. The gas hydrated is “wet gas” characterized by a low C1/(C2 + C3) ratio, from 2.55 to 43.33, which was mainly derived from a deeply buried source kitchen at a mature stage. There is change in the heterogeneity between the compositions of gas and biomarkers at the site GMGS5-W08 along the depth and there is generally a higher proportion of thermogenic hydrocarbons at the bottom boundary of each MTDs, which indicates a varying contribution of deeply buried thermogenic hydrocarbons. Our results indicate that the MTDs played a blocking role in regulating the vertical transportation of hydrate-related gases and affect the distribution of gas hydrate accumulation in the QDNB. Full article
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27 pages, 13513 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation of Improved Gas Production from Oceanic Gas Hydrate Accumulation by Permeability Enhancement Associated with Geomechanical Response
by Rui Wang, Jiecheng Zhang, Tianju Wang and Hailong Lu
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(7), 1468; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11071468 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1109
Abstract
In the Shenhu Area of the South China Sea, although some numerical studies are conducted on the gas production at well SHSC-4, the geomechanical responses have not been taken into account, and the associated impact of permeability enhancement on gas production has not [...] Read more.
In the Shenhu Area of the South China Sea, although some numerical studies are conducted on the gas production at well SHSC-4, the geomechanical responses have not been taken into account, and the associated impact of permeability enhancement on gas production has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, pTOUGH+HYDRATE V1.5 coupled with the RGMS is applied to account for geomechanical responses. Based on actual geological conditions, the reservoir model has five layers: the hydrate-bearing layer (HBL), the three-phase layer (TPL), the free gas layer (FGL), the overburden, and the underburden. The numerical results match the trial production data, validating the numerical model. The analysis shows that gas production from the FGL contributed the most (72.17%) to the cumulative gas production (Vg), followed by the TPL (23.54%) and the HBL (4.29%). The cumulative water-to-gas ratio (RwgT) gradually decreased during gas production, with the HBL exhibiting the highest value. Permeability enhancement can improve gas production, with the FGL being the most responsive to such enhancement. It increased Vg by 87% and reduced RwgT to 85%. To achieve more realistic production schemes and better enhance energy recovery, it is advisable to conduct numerical investigations that incorporate geomechanical considerations due to the intricate nature of hydrate-bearing sediments. Full article
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10 pages, 1705 KiB  
Article
Principle and Feasibility Study of Proposed Hydrate-Based Cyclopentane Purification Technology
by Xianbing Hu, Lingjie Sun, Chengyang Yuan, Man Li, Hongsheng Dong, Lunxiang Zhang, Lei Yang, Jiafei Zhao and Yongchen Song
Energies 2023, 16(12), 4681; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16124681 - 13 Jun 2023
Viewed by 959
Abstract
The separation of azeotropic mixtures has conventionally been one of the most challenging tasks in industrial processes due to the fact that components in the mixture will undergo gas–liquid phase transition at the same time. We proposed a method for separating azeotropes using [...] Read more.
The separation of azeotropic mixtures has conventionally been one of the most challenging tasks in industrial processes due to the fact that components in the mixture will undergo gas–liquid phase transition at the same time. We proposed a method for separating azeotropes using hydrate formation as a solid–liquid phase transition. The feasibility of hydrate-based separation is determined by analyzing the crystal structure and chemical bonds of hydrate. Taking the azeotrope cyclopentane and neohexane in petroleum as an example, cyclopentane (95%) was purified to 98.56% yield using the proposed hydrate-based cyclopentane purification technology. However, this is difficult to achieve using conventional distillation methods. The proposed method is simple in operation and yields a good separation effect. This study provides a new method for separating cyclopentane and neohexane. Full article
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4 pages, 727 KiB  
Editorial
Formation, Exploration, and Development of Natural Gas Hydrates
by Hongsheng Dong, Lunxiang Zhang and Jiaqi Wang
Energies 2022, 15(16), 5951; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15165951 - 17 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1254
Abstract
Currently, natural gas hydrates (NGHs) have been proposed as promising and environmentally friendly carbon-based energy sources that are beneficial for mitigating the traditional energy crises [...] Full article
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