Water Supply System (WSS) Reliability, Safety and Risk Modelling & Assessment

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Use and Scarcity".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2022) | Viewed by 21773

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Water Supply and Sewerage Systems, Faculty of Civil, Environmental Engineering and Architecture, Rzeszow University of Technology, 35-959 Rzeszow, Poland
Interests: critical infrastructure; reliability and safety; water supply systems; consumers; failure; risk analysis; reliability-based risk assessment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Water Supply and Sewerage Systems, Faculty of Civil, Environmental Engineering and Architecture, Rzeszow University of Technology, 35-959 Rzeszow, Poland
Interests: reliability and safety of municipal systems; water supply systems; water network; risk analysis connected with water supply systems operation; safety of water supply consumers; failure risk analysis; reliability-based risk assessment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Reliability and safety of engineering systems are permanent scientific and operational issues. They become even more pressing issues if these engineering systems belong to critical infrastructures. A Water Supply System is a critical infrastructure in modern societies. The first mission of a WSS is to provide households with potable water in the required quantity, at the appropriate pressure, and on demand, as required by statutory regulations. The risk assessment is primarily focused on supply disruption risk (shortage or deficit) and their consequences on the environment, the consumer health, and the global security of the city. The examination of the current operational state, potential major threats, and the related hazards, should all be part of every risk assessment. The proposed approaches are meant to address a wide spectrum of the WSS reliability, safety and risk modelling, and assessment issues.

Prof. Dr. Janusz Rak
Dr. Katarzyna Pietrucha-Urbanik
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • hazard identification
  • matrix
  • manage drinking water supply safety
  • risk analysis
  • risk and vulnerability assessment
  • safety
  • Water Safety Plans
  • water supply systems
  • water demand modeling
  • water supply systems
  • water network failure analysis
  • water losses
  • innovative methodologies
  • water quality monitoring
  • techniques and technology for smart water systems
  • optimal network design
  • water distribution networks
  • contamination
  • water-energy nexus
  • water quality
  • failure risk analysis
  • prediction models
  • rehabilitation of water distribution networks
  • reliability-based risk assessment
  • risk assessment methodology
  • safety of water supply systems

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

8 pages, 240 KiB  
Editorial
Water, Resources, and Resilience: Insights from Diverse Environmental Studies
by Katarzyna Pietrucha-Urbanik and Janusz Rak
Water 2023, 15(22), 3965; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15223965 - 15 Nov 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1174
Abstract
Water is our most precious resource, and its responsible management and utilization are paramount in the face of ever-growing environmental challenges [...] Full article

Research

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18 pages, 3877 KiB  
Article
Use of Water and Hygiene Products: A COVID-19 Investigation in Indonesia
by Ahmad Komarulzaman, Widyarani, Raden Tina Rosmalina, Diana Rahayuning Wulan, Umi Hamidah and Neni Sintawardani
Water 2023, 15(19), 3405; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15193405 - 28 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 953
Abstract
This study examines the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on hygiene practices and water consumption in Indonesia. Data were collected through an online survey, supplemented by the official national socio-economic survey. The findings indicate an increase in hygiene practices, particularly handwashing, aligned with [...] Read more.
This study examines the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on hygiene practices and water consumption in Indonesia. Data were collected through an online survey, supplemented by the official national socio-economic survey. The findings indicate an increase in hygiene practices, particularly handwashing, aligned with health protocols. This behavior led to higher water and hygiene product usage, unaffected by socio-economic factors. Respondents’ perception of COVID-19 and compliance with health protocols drove the increase, with older individuals preferring handwashing with water and younger individuals favoring hand sanitizer. Access to improved drinking water remained stagnant, while bottled water consumption rose. This highlights challenges in achieving the SDG 6 targets for safe drinking water. This study stresses the need to address COVID-19 perception to promote better hygiene practices and raises concerns about increased water usage, domestic pollution, and wastewater management during and after the pandemic. These insights could inform policymakers, researchers, and practitioners working in public health and water management to achieve SDG 6 goals amidst the pandemic and beyond. Full article
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20 pages, 2278 KiB  
Article
The Vital Roles of Parent Material in Driving Soil Substrates and Heavy Metals Availability in Arid Alkaline Regions: A Case Study from Egypt
by Manal A. Alnaimy, Ahmed S. Elrys, Martina Zelenakova, Katarzyna Pietrucha-Urbanik and Abdel-Rahman M. Merwad
Water 2023, 15(13), 2481; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15132481 - 06 Jul 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2031
Abstract
Despite studies focusing on soil substrates (carbon and nitrogen) and heavy metal availability, the impact of diversified parent materials in arid alkaline regions has received little attention. To reveal the influence of parent material, we investigated four different parent materials: fluvio-marine, Nile alluvial, [...] Read more.
Despite studies focusing on soil substrates (carbon and nitrogen) and heavy metal availability, the impact of diversified parent materials in arid alkaline regions has received little attention. To reveal the influence of parent material, we investigated four different parent materials: fluvio-marine, Nile alluvial, lacustrine, and aeolian deposits. We assessed the effect of soil parent materials through selected soil physical and chemical properties, such as clay content, bulk density, pH, and available phosphorus (AP). The Tukey HSD test (SPSS ver. 23) was used to assess the soils derived from these different sediments. Using the R “glmulti” package, we examined this effect in a model of mixed-effects meta-regression. The sum of Akaike weights for models that contained each element was used to estimate the importance of each factor. The average contents of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total N in alluvial deposits were greater (p < 0.001) than those of marine, aeolian, and lacustrine deposits. A multivariate analysis in arid regions revealed that parent material, soil pH, and the availability of P had the greatest effects on SOC concentration, whereas clay content, available P, soil pH, parent material, and bulk density had the greatest effects on soil total nitrogen. The average content of Fe in the aeolian deposits was greater (p < 0.001) than those of marine, alluvial, and lacustrine deposits, without any significant differences between the latter two deposits. We found that the highest average contents of zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), and copper (Cu) were recorded in alluvial deposits, with significant differences between other deposits. Soil parent material was the major factor impacting soil iron (Fe) content, along with clay content and soil pH. However, soil bulk density was the most important factor controlling soil Zn and Mn contents, while SOC drove Cu content. This study will help in developing a more accurate model of the dynamics of soil substrates and availability of heavy metals by considering readily available variables, such as parent materials, soil pH, soil bulk density, and clay content. Full article
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16 pages, 1013 KiB  
Article
Hybrid Optimization Algorithms of Firefly with GA and PSO for the Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks
by Riham Ezzeldin, Martina Zelenakova, Hany F. Abd-Elhamid, Katarzyna Pietrucha-Urbanik and Samer Elabd
Water 2023, 15(10), 1906; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15101906 - 17 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1585
Abstract
A novel two-hybrid optimization model of particle swarm optimization (FAPSO) and firefly algorithm with genetic algorithm (FAGA) are introduced to improve the performance of the conventional firefly algorithm for the least cost design of water distribution networks. The performance of the models is [...] Read more.
A novel two-hybrid optimization model of particle swarm optimization (FAPSO) and firefly algorithm with genetic algorithm (FAGA) are introduced to improve the performance of the conventional firefly algorithm for the least cost design of water distribution networks. The performance of the models is tested through application to three of the well-known benchmark networks available in the literature and also to the real case study of the El-Mostakbal City network, Ismailia, Egypt. The performance of the different algorithms was determined by evaluating the minimum, maximum, mean and standard deviation of costs, the function evaluation number, the consumed computational time for 1000 evaluations and the success rate calculated using the fuzzy logic concept for different optimal solutions slightly greater than the known optimal solution (by about 1.0% and 2.0%) were utilized for testing the convergence and search capabilities of the models. It was found that the FAGA model is superior to the standard firefly and FAPSO models in exploring the search space, exploiting the promising areas and convergence to the optimal solution and can be considered as a reasonable optimization technique for the management of water distribution networks. Full article
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19 pages, 5002 KiB  
Article
Experimental and Numerical Study on Flow Control Using 3-Array Submerged Vane in Laboratory Channel Bend
by Bestami Taşar, Fatih Üneş, Ercan Gemici and Martina Zelenakova
Water 2023, 15(4), 659; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15040659 - 08 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1321
Abstract
Regulation structures such as submerged vane are needed to reduce and eliminate environmental damage due to increased flooding in rivers. In particular, scours on the outer bank due to increased flow velocities cause the river bed to change and deteriorate. In this study, [...] Read more.
Regulation structures such as submerged vane are needed to reduce and eliminate environmental damage due to increased flooding in rivers. In particular, scours on the outer bank due to increased flow velocities cause the river bed to change and deteriorate. In this study, the effect on flow velocities was investigated experimentally by using 3-array submerged vane structures in areas close to the outer bank. The experimental vane results were performed in the open channel setup. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) results obtained with the numerical model were also verified and compared with experimental results. It has been observed that the CFD model gives results close to the real experimental results. The standard-based k-ε model was used as the turbulence model. In the outer meander, the 3-array submerged vane with a 3-vane structure was found to affect the flow velocity by 16–27% in the region behind the vane. The flow velocities were investigated along with depth using the CFD and found that the mean velocity was reduced by 14–21% along the depth. It is also recommended that submerged vane structures can be applied as an effective method in reducing flow velocities and directing flows. Full article
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13 pages, 3292 KiB  
Article
Floating Photovoltaic Plants as an Effective Option to Reduce Water Evaporation in Water-Stressed Regions and Produce Electricity: A Case Study of Lake Nasser, Egypt
by Mohamed Abdelgaied, Abd Elnaby Kabeel, Martina Zeleňáková and Hany F. Abd-Elhamid
Water 2023, 15(4), 635; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15040635 - 06 Feb 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2873
Abstract
Water resources are considered one of the most critical and indispensable elements to ensure the survival of all living organisms on the planet. Since there is a close relationship between water, energy, and food security, this interdependence presents a major global societal challenge. [...] Read more.
Water resources are considered one of the most critical and indispensable elements to ensure the survival of all living organisms on the planet. Since there is a close relationship between water, energy, and food security, this interdependence presents a major global societal challenge. While Egypt is one of the countries that suffers the most from water poverty, it has Lake Nasser which is considered one of the largest artificial lakes in the world, with an estimated area of about 5250 km2. Hence, this work aims to conserve such water resources while addressing two critical issues related to water and energy. To achieve this goal, this study proposed the use of partial coverage technology on Lake Nasser with floating photovoltaic (FPV) panels. The results of the study showed that the partial coverage of Lake Nasser with FPV panels represents a very effective proposal to preserve the water resources of Egypt, which suffers from water poverty. The savings in water evaporation in Lake Nasser reached 61.71% (9,074,081,000 m3/year) and the annual rate of electricity production was 467.99 TWh/year when 50% of the area of Lake Nasser was covered with FPV panels. Full article
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19 pages, 4784 KiB  
Article
Simultaneous Removal of Metal Ions from Wastewater by a Greener Approach
by Lubna A. Ibrahim, Marwa E. El-Sesy, ElSayed ElBastamy ElSayed, Martina Zelenakova, Maria Hlinkova, Essam Sh. Mohamed and Mohamed Abu-Hashim
Water 2022, 14(24), 4049; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14244049 - 12 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1997
Abstract
The examination of the performance of raw and immobilized S. (Saccharomyces) cerevisiae in the simultaneous abatement of metal ions from wastewater effluent is the focal point of this article. The optimal storage time for raw and immobilized S. cerevisiae, during which they [...] Read more.
The examination of the performance of raw and immobilized S. (Saccharomyces) cerevisiae in the simultaneous abatement of metal ions from wastewater effluent is the focal point of this article. The optimal storage time for raw and immobilized S. cerevisiae, during which they can be utilized, was estimated. The outcomes revealed that as the initial metal ion concentrations increased, the adsorption capacity improved, while the removal efficiency of S. cerevisiae yeast cells decreased, with the highest uptake obtained at the optimal conditions: pH = 5.0, 2.0 g S. cerevisiae/L, 25 °C, and a contact time of 25 min. The maximum adsorption capacities (qmax) for Pb(II), Cd(II), and Ni(II) ions are shown by Langmuir at 65, 90, and 51 mg/g, respectively. It was discovered that the metal ions’ biosorption reactions were spontaneous and were fitted by the pseudo-second-order model. The mechanisms of the metal ions’ abatement were explained by using XRD (X-ray diffraction), FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), (BET) Brunauer–Emmett–Teller, and TEM (transmission electron microscopy) outputs. EDTA and citric acid can eliminate more than 70 ± 4 and 90 ± 5% of the adsorbed ions, respectively. The experiment of storage demonstrated that the immobilized S. cerevisiae was more stable for 8 months than the raw yeast. Full article
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17 pages, 1850 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Assessment of a Water Safety Plan (WSP) in Salta, Argentina
by María Soledad Rodriguez-Alvarez, Aimé Gutiérrez-López, Martín Alejandro Iribarnegaray, Mark Howard Weir and Lucas Seghezzo
Water 2022, 14(19), 2948; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14192948 - 20 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1695
Abstract
The use of water safety plans (WSPs) has been recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) since 2004 as a highly effective means of improving water safety management. Experience with the implementation of WSPs is increasing worldwide, but there is no unified or [...] Read more.
The use of water safety plans (WSPs) has been recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) since 2004 as a highly effective means of improving water safety management. Experience with the implementation of WSPs is increasing worldwide, but there is no unified or standardized methodology for how the verification of a WSP should be conducted. In this article, we present a thorough evaluation of a specific WSP five years after its initial implementation. We reviewed the risk assessment methodology used by a water utility in Salta, Argentina, and assessed the implementation of control measures. To objectively evaluate the effectiveness of the WSP, we evaluated water quality parameters and customer complaints using a time-series analysis. We show that although some control measures were implemented, and a reduction in risk values was observed, it was not possible to improve long-standing problems in the water supply of the city of Salta, such as the number of consumer complaints or high turbidity levels in the water during the rainy season. We discuss the role of rigorous scientific assessments and the importance of legislation and regulatory bodies in implementing the WSP. Full article
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21 pages, 4523 KiB  
Article
Evaluation and Mitigation of Flash Flood Risks in Arid Regions: A Case Study of Wadi Sudr in Egypt
by Elsayed M. Ramadan, Hossny A. Shahin, Hany F. Abd-Elhamid, Martina Zelenakova and Hazem M. Eldeeb
Water 2022, 14(19), 2945; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14192945 - 20 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2173
Abstract
Flash floods threaten the lives of people and properties in different regions around the world, especially in arid and semi-arid regions due to infrequent flood events. The current study aims to assess the geomorphological parameters of Wadi Sudr, South Sinai in Egypt to [...] Read more.
Flash floods threaten the lives of people and properties in different regions around the world, especially in arid and semi-arid regions due to infrequent flood events. The current study aims to assess the geomorphological parameters of Wadi Sudr, South Sinai in Egypt to evaluate flash flood risks and provide adequate mitigation methods. This study presents an integrated method that combines geographic information system (GIS) and watershed modeling system (WMS) with HEC-HMS to visualize and assess flood events in the study area. Different morphologic parameters of the watershed were determined, including linear, areal, and relief parameters. GIS was used to analyze the satellite images and determine the characteristics of the valley to get the extension and number of stream orders in the valley, then WMS was used to estimate rainstorms and basin characteristics, as well as estimate the amount of rain that causes flooding. HEC-HMS program was used for hydrological demonstration and precipitation overflow estimation. The morphometric analysis provided a quantitative portrayal of the Wadi Sudr watershed. Wadi Sudr has 4029 streams connected with seventh order of streams spread over an area of 547.45 km2. Based on the results of morphologic and hydraulic parameters of the watershed, two locations of protection dams were suggested. A comparison between the two locations was made to select the best location based on some criteria, including storage capacity, water depth behind the dam, width and shape of the valley, and the area covered by water stored in the reservoir. The comparison between the two locations showed that the first location is more appropriate for dam construction based on the examined criteria. The valley shape in the first location is more regular than in the second. The first location provided higher storage capacity and water depth in front of the dam than the second. The area covered by water and the width of the valley is less than the second. The stability of the dam at the first site could be higher and the cost of construction could cost be less than the second due to these reasons. A comparison was made using the weighted linear combination (WLC) method, which consists of 13 criteria to determine the suitability index (SI) in order to select the best location from the proposed locations. SI proved that the first location is better than the second. The designed dam in the selected site could be cost-efficient to protect the study area from flood risks and harvesting water that can be used in different purposes. This methodology can be applied in different areas for mitigating flash flood risks. Full article
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14 pages, 5918 KiB  
Article
Effect of Changing the Shape and Size of Inlet Area of Grates on the Hydraulic Efficiency of Urban Rainstorm Drainage Systems
by Ismail Fathy, Gamal M. Abdel-Aal, Maha Rashad Fahmy, Amira Fathy, Martina Zeleňáková, Hany F. Abd-Elhamid and Mohamed A. Nassar
Water 2022, 14(16), 2541; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14162541 - 18 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1923
Abstract
Urban rainstorm drainage systems are used to collect the surface runoff from streets and other land surfaces through grate or curb openings that convey it to the drains. The quantity of surface runoff that is not discharged to the urban rainstorm drainage systems [...] Read more.
Urban rainstorm drainage systems are used to collect the surface runoff from streets and other land surfaces through grate or curb openings that convey it to the drains. The quantity of surface runoff that is not discharged to the urban rainstorm drainage systems due to inadequate grate size or because the grate capacity is exceeded can cause flooding, immoderate hazards to drivers and pedestrians, and disrupt urban activities. This study aims to carry out experimental work to investigate the hydraulic efficiency of urban rainstorm drainage systems using different types of grates (shape and size of inlet area) for harvesting excess rainwater. Different grate shapes (five) with different inlet areas were investigated, as well as using three relative grate inlet areas (26%, 51%, and 64%). The results of the experimental work indicated that the best grate shape is the grate type 4 which provided the smallest reduction in discharge efficiency within 8.7%. The results specified that changing the size of the inlet area of grates from (26%) to (64%) has a significant impact on urban rainstorm drainage systems efficiency which decreased by 4%. In addition, the dimensional analysis principle with multi regression analysis were used to develop an empirical equation to compute the efficiency of urban rainstorm drainage systems. The relation between grate shapes and the relative inlet area with the efficiency of grate capture provides an indication to the decisionmakers to increase the time period for maintenance which will save the cost for further maintenance. The presented empirical equation can help decisionmakers for monitoring the current situation of grate blockage (relative grate inlet areas) and the corresponding efficiency. This study is beneficial for future road drainage system construction to avoid problems by assessing the performances of the current drainage systems and proposing mitigation measures to avoid improper functioning. Finally, this methodology can help to improve the efficiency of urban rainstorm drainage systems that can reduce the risks of urban floods. Full article
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Review

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23 pages, 3957 KiB  
Review
Advances in Assessing the Reliability of Water Distribution Networks: A Bibliometric Analysis and Scoping Review
by Swati Sirsant, Mohamed A. Hamouda and Mostafa F. Shaaban
Water 2023, 15(5), 986; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15050986 - 04 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2094
Abstract
The reliability of Water Distribution Networks (WDNs) is a critical topic that has been explored by many researchers over the last few decades. Nevertheless, this research domain has gained momentum in the last decade. WDN reliability was addressed in the literature using different [...] Read more.
The reliability of Water Distribution Networks (WDNs) is a critical topic that has been explored by many researchers over the last few decades. Nevertheless, this research domain has gained momentum in the last decade. WDN reliability was addressed in the literature using different approaches and techniques. This study presents a bibliometric analysis and scoping review of the progress and gaps in research on WDN reliability. The analysis was performed on a total of 347 articles from 2000 to 2022, which were retrieved from the SCOPUS database. The bibliometric analysis identified trends and gaps by focusing on articles output, citation network of articles, co-authorship and collaboration analysis, co-citation, and clustering analysis. In addition, coupling keywords analysis with thematic maps analysis helped identify basic, niche, emerging, and declining research themes in the field of WDN reliability. Three major research themes were found: WDN optimization, reliability assessment, and consideration of GHG emissions and energy-cost for WDN expansion. Reliability surrogate measures (RSMs) were found to be one of the most widely researched topics in this field. Performance assessment of various RSMs, as well as the consideration of energy and cost for WDN design and expansion stood out as the emerging trends for future research in the field of WDN reliability. Full article
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