Special Issue "Physical Processes in Lakes"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Lars Bengtsson
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Water Resources Engineering, Lund University, Sweden
Interests: hydrology, especially cold climate; aquatic systems, especially lakes; urban water; hydraulics; hydrodynamics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biological processes in lakes very much relate to physical processes such as mixing and exchange between water, atmosphere, and sediment. Technical systems must be adapted to lake physics. The numerous climatological studies of today are mostly related to large-scale processes and do not involve lakes in detail. Additionally, the thermal conditions are different in tropical lakes, temperate lakes, and arctic lakes, and during different parts of the year. In moderately high latitudes and high altitudes, lakes are ice covered for long periods. Thermal processes are strongly related to mixing. Studies of physical processes in lakes have been rather neglected in recent years. Findings can be found as separate papers in different kinds of scientific journals, but not as Special Issues on physical processes specifically pertaining to lakes.

Water now intends to publish an Issue where new findings on physical processes in lakes can be gathered. Contributions can be on broad topics, such as vertical and horizontal mixing and exchange of water between different parts of a lake; exchange processes between water and atmosphere and between water and sediment including heat, mass, dissolved oxygen, and CO2; and the effects of resuspension and sedimentation on biological life and light conditions. We are especially interested in the comparison of lakes in different climates and environments, and expected future changes.

Prof. Dr. Lars Bengtsson
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Mixing processes
  • Exchange processes: water–atmosphere
  • Exchange processes: water–sediment
  • Resuspension–sedimentation
  • Thermal processes
  • Lakes in different climates

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Article
Energy Flux Paths in Lakes and Reservoirs
Water 2021, 13(22), 3270; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223270 - 18 Nov 2021
Viewed by 303
Abstract
Mechanical energy in lakes is present in various types of water motion, including turbulent flows, surface and internal waves. The major source of kinetic energy is wind forcing at the water surface. Although a small portion of the vertical wind energy flux in [...] Read more.
Mechanical energy in lakes is present in various types of water motion, including turbulent flows, surface and internal waves. The major source of kinetic energy is wind forcing at the water surface. Although a small portion of the vertical wind energy flux in the atmosphere is transferred to water, it is crucial for physical, biogeochemical and ecological processes in lentic ecosystems. To examine energy fluxes and energy content in surface and internal waves, we analyze extensive datasets of air- and water-side measurements collected at two small water bodies (<10 km2). For the first time we use directly measured atmospheric momentum fluxes. The estimated energy fluxes and content agree well with results reported for larger lakes, suggesting that the energetics governing water motions in enclosed basins is similar, independent of basin size. The largest fraction of wind energy flux is transferred to surface waves and increases strongly nonlinearly for wind speeds exceeding 3 m s−1. The energy content is largest in basin-scale and high-frequency internal waves but shows seasonal variability and varies among aquatic systems. At one of the study sites, energy dissipation rates varied diurnally, suggesting biogenic turbulence, which appears to be a widespread phenomenon in lakes and reservoirs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Processes in Lakes)
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Article
The Multi-Scale Layering-Structure of Thermal Microscale Profiles
Water 2021, 13(21), 3042; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213042 - 01 Nov 2021
Viewed by 293
Abstract
Thermal microstructure profiling is an established technique for investigating turbulent mixing and stratification in lakes and oceans. However, it provides only quasi-instantaneous, 1-D snapshots. Other approaches to measuring these phenomena exist, but each has logistic and/or quality weaknesses. Hence, turbulent mixing and stratification [...] Read more.
Thermal microstructure profiling is an established technique for investigating turbulent mixing and stratification in lakes and oceans. However, it provides only quasi-instantaneous, 1-D snapshots. Other approaches to measuring these phenomena exist, but each has logistic and/or quality weaknesses. Hence, turbulent mixing and stratification processes remain greatly under-sampled. This paper contributes to addressing this problem by presenting a novel analysis of thermal microstructure profiles, focusing on their multi-scale stratification structure. Profiles taken in two small lakes using a Self-Contained Automated Micro-Profiler (SCAMP) were analysed. For each profile, buoyancy frequency (N), Thorpe scales (LT), and the coefficient of vertical turbulent diffusivity (KZ) were determined. To characterize the multi-scale stratification, profiles of d2T/dz2 at a spectrum of scales were calculated and the number of turning points in them counted. Plotting these counts against the scale gave pseudo-spectra, which were characterized by the index D of their power law regression lines. Scale-dependent correlations of D with N, LT and KZ were found, and suggest that this approach may be useful for providing alternative estimates of the efficiency of turbulent mixing and measures of longer-term averages of KZ than current methods provide. Testing these potential uses will require comparison of field measurements of D with time-integrated KZ values and numerical simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Processes in Lakes)
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Article
Stratification in a Reservoir Mixed by Bubble Plumes under Future Climate Scenarios
Water 2021, 13(18), 2467; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13182467 - 08 Sep 2021
Viewed by 653
Abstract
During summer, reservoir stratification can negatively impact source water quality. Mixing via bubble plumes (i.e., destratification) aims to minimise this. Within Blagdon Lake, a UK drinking water reservoir, a bubble plume system was found to be insufficient for maintaining homogeneity during a 2017 [...] Read more.
During summer, reservoir stratification can negatively impact source water quality. Mixing via bubble plumes (i.e., destratification) aims to minimise this. Within Blagdon Lake, a UK drinking water reservoir, a bubble plume system was found to be insufficient for maintaining homogeneity during a 2017 heatwave based on two in situ temperature chains. Air temperature will increase under future climate change which will affect stratification; this raises questions over the future applicability of these plumes. To evaluate bubble-plume performance now and in the future, AEM3D was used to simulate reservoir mixing. Calibration and validation were done on in situ measurements. The model performed well with a root mean squared error of 0.53 °C. Twelve future meteorological scenarios from the UK Climate Projection 2018 were taken and down-scaled to sub-daily values to simulate lake response to future summer periods. The down-scaling methods, based on diurnal patterns, showed mixed results. Future model runs covered five-year intervals from 2030 to 2080. Mixing events, mean water temperatures, and Schmidt stability were evaluated. Eight scenarios showed a significant increase in water temperature, with two of these scenarios showing significant decrease in mixing events. None showed a significant increase in energy requirements. Results suggest that future climate scenarios may not alter the stratification regime; however, the warmer water may favour growth conditions for certain species of cyanobacteria and accelerate sedimentary oxygen consumption. There is some evidence of the lake changing from polymictic to a more monomictic nature. The results demonstrate bubble plumes are unlikely to maintain water column homogeneity under future climates. Modelling artificial mixing systems under future climates is a powerful tool to inform system design and reservoir management including requirements to prevent future source water quality degradation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Processes in Lakes)
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Article
Dissolved Oxygen in a Shallow Ice-Covered Lake in Winter: Effect of Changes in Light, Thermal and Ice Regimes
Water 2021, 13(17), 2435; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172435 - 04 Sep 2021
Viewed by 644
Abstract
Oxygen conditions in ice-covered lakes depend on many factors, which, in turn, are influenced by a changing climate, so detection of the oxygen trend becomes difficult. Our research was based on data of long-term measurements of dissolved oxygen (2007–2020), water temperature, under-ice solar [...] Read more.
Oxygen conditions in ice-covered lakes depend on many factors, which, in turn, are influenced by a changing climate, so detection of the oxygen trend becomes difficult. Our research was based on data of long-term measurements of dissolved oxygen (2007–2020), water temperature, under-ice solar radiation, and snow-ice thickness (1995–2020) in Lake Vendyurskoe (Northwestern Russia). Changes of air temperature and precipitation in the study region during 1994–2020 and ice phenology of Lake Vendyurskoe for the same period based on field data and FLake model calculations were analyzed. The interannual variability of ice-on and ice-off dates covered wide time intervals (5 and 3 weeks, respectively), but no significant trends were revealed. In years with early ice-on, oxygen content decreased by more than 50% by the end of winter. In years with late ice-on and intermediate ice-off, the oxygen decrease was less than 40%. A significant negative trend was revealed for snow-ice cover thickness in spring. A climatic decrease of snow-ice cover thickness contributes to the rise of under-ice irradiance and earlier onset of under-ice convection. In years with early and long convection, an increase in oxygen content by 10–15% was observed at the end of the ice-covered period, presumably due to photosynthesis of phytoplankton. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Processes in Lakes)
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Article
Deriving Six Components of Reynolds Stress Tensor from Single-ADCP Data
Water 2021, 13(17), 2389; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172389 - 30 Aug 2021
Viewed by 540
Abstract
Acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP) are widely used in geophysical studies for mean velocity profiling and calculation of energy dissipation rate. On the other hand, the estimation of turbulent stresses from ADCP data still remains challenging. With the four-beam version of the device, [...] Read more.
Acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP) are widely used in geophysical studies for mean velocity profiling and calculation of energy dissipation rate. On the other hand, the estimation of turbulent stresses from ADCP data still remains challenging. With the four-beam version of the device, only two shear stresses are derivable; and even for the five-beam version (Janus+), the calculation of the full Reynolds stress tensor is problematic currently. The known attempts to overcome the problem are based on the “coupled ADCP” experimental setup and include some hard restrictions, not to mention the essential complexity of performing experiments. In this paper, a new method is presented which allows to derive the stresses from single-ADCP data. Its essence is that interbeam correlations are taken into account as producing the missing equations for stresses. This method is applicable only for the depth range, for which the distance between the beams is comparable to the scales, where the turbulence is locally isotropic and homogeneous. The validation of this method was carried out for convectively-mixed layer in a boreal ice-covered lake. The results of computations turned out to be physically sustainable in the sense that realizability conditions were basically fulfilled. The additional verification was carried out by comparing the results, obtained by the new method and “coupled ADCPs” one. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Processes in Lakes)
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Article
Simulating Nutrients and Phytoplankton Dynamics in Lakes: Model Development and Applications
Water 2021, 13(15), 2088; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13152088 - 30 Jul 2021
Viewed by 751
Abstract
Due to eutrophication, many lakes require periodic management and restoration, which becomes unpredictable due to internal nutrient loading. To provide better lake management and restoration strategies, a deterministic, one-dimensional water quality model MINLAKE2020 was modified from daily MINLAKE2012 by incorporating chlorophyll-a, nutrients, and [...] Read more.
Due to eutrophication, many lakes require periodic management and restoration, which becomes unpredictable due to internal nutrient loading. To provide better lake management and restoration strategies, a deterministic, one-dimensional water quality model MINLAKE2020 was modified from daily MINLAKE2012 by incorporating chlorophyll-a, nutrients, and biochemical oxygen demand models into the regional year-around temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) model. MINLAKE2020 was applied to six lakes (varying depth and trophic status) in Minnesota focusing on studying the internal nutrient dynamics. The average root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) of simulated water temperature and DO in six lakes are 1.51 °C and 2.33 mg/L, respectively, when compared with profile data over 2–4 years. The average RMSE of DO simulation decreased by 24.2% when compared to the MINLAKE2012 model. The internal nutrient dynamics was studied by analyzing time series of phosphorus, chlorophyll-a, and DO over several years and by performing a sensitivity analysis of model parameters. A long-term simulation (20 years) of Lake Elmo shows that the simulated phosphorus release from sediment under the anoxic condition results in surface phosphorus increase, which matches with the observed trends. An average internal phosphorus loading increase of 92.3 kg/year increased the average daily phosphorus concentration by 0.0087 mg/L. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Processes in Lakes)
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Article
Simulating Diurnal Variations of Water Temperature and Dissolved Oxygen in Shallow Minnesota Lakes
Water 2021, 13(14), 1980; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141980 - 19 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1054
Abstract
In shallow lakes, water quality is mostly affected by weather conditions and some ecological processes which vary throughout the day. To understand and model diurnal-nocturnal variations, a deterministic, one-dimensional hourly lake water quality model MINLAKE2018 was modified from daily MINLAKE2012, and applied to [...] Read more.
In shallow lakes, water quality is mostly affected by weather conditions and some ecological processes which vary throughout the day. To understand and model diurnal-nocturnal variations, a deterministic, one-dimensional hourly lake water quality model MINLAKE2018 was modified from daily MINLAKE2012, and applied to five shallow lakes in Minnesota to simulate water temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) over multiple years. A maximum diurnal water temperature variation of 11.40 °C and DO variation of 5.63 mg/L were simulated. The root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) of simulated hourly surface temperatures in five lakes range from 1.19 to 1.95 °C when compared with hourly data over 4–8 years. The RMSEs of temperature and DO simulations from MINLAKE2018 decreased by 17.3% and 18.2%, respectively, and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency increased by 10.3% and 66.7%, respectively; indicating the hourly model performs better in comparison to daily MINLAKE2012. The hourly model uses variable hourly wind speeds to determine the turbulent diffusion coefficient in the epilimnion and produces more hours of temperature and DO stratification including stratification that lasted several hours on some of the days. The hourly model includes direct solar radiation heating to the bottom sediment that decreases magnitude of heat flux from or to the sediment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Processes in Lakes)
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Article
Gas Pressure Dynamics in Small and Mid-Size Lakes
Water 2021, 13(13), 1824; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131824 - 30 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 882
Abstract
Dissolved gases produce a gas pressure. This gas pressure is the appropriate physical quantity for judging the possibility of bubble formation and hence it is central for understanding exchange of climate-relevant gases between (limnic) water and the atmosphere. The contribution of ebullition has [...] Read more.
Dissolved gases produce a gas pressure. This gas pressure is the appropriate physical quantity for judging the possibility of bubble formation and hence it is central for understanding exchange of climate-relevant gases between (limnic) water and the atmosphere. The contribution of ebullition has widely been neglected in numerical simulations. We present measurements from six lacustrine waterbodies in Central Germany: including a natural lake, a drinking water reservoir, a mine pit lake, a sand excavation lake, a flooded quarry, and a small flooded lignite opencast, which has been heavily polluted. Seasonal changes of oxygen and temperature are complemented by numerical simulations of nitrogen and calculations of vapor pressure to quantify the contributions and their dynamics in lacustrine waters. In addition, accumulation of gases in monimolimnetic waters is demonstrated. We sum the partial pressures of the gases to yield a quantitative value for total gas pressure to reason which processes can force ebullition at which locations. In conclusion, only a small number of gases contribute decisively to gas pressure and hence can be crucial for bubble formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Processes in Lakes)
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Article
Relative Performance of 1-D Versus 3-D Hydrodynamic, Water-Quality Models for Predicting Water Temperature and Oxygen in a Shallow, Eutrophic, Managed Reservoir
Water 2021, 13(1), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13010088 - 03 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 936
Abstract
Many researchers use one-dimensional (1-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) coupled hydrodynamic and water-quality models to simulate water quality dynamics, but direct comparison of their relative performance is rare. Such comparisons may quantify their relative advantages, which can inform best practices. In this study, we [...] Read more.
Many researchers use one-dimensional (1-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) coupled hydrodynamic and water-quality models to simulate water quality dynamics, but direct comparison of their relative performance is rare. Such comparisons may quantify their relative advantages, which can inform best practices. In this study, we compare two 1-year simulations in a shallow, eutrophic, managed reservoir using a community-developed 1-D model and a 3-D model coupled with the same water-quality model library based on multiple evaluation criteria. In addition, a verified bubble plume model is coupled with the 1-D and 3-D models to simulate the water temperature in four epilimnion mixing periods to further quantify the relative performance of the 1-D and 3-D models. Based on the present investigation, adopting a 1-D water-quality model to calibrate a 3-D model is time-efficient and can produce reasonable results; 3-D models are recommended for simulating thermal stratification and management interventions, whereas 1-D models may be more appropriate for simpler model setups, especially if field data needed for 3-D modeling are lacking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Processes in Lakes)
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