Due to eutrophication, many lakes require periodic management and restoration, which becomes unpredictable due to internal nutrient loading. To provide better lake management and restoration strategies, a deterministic, one-dimensional water quality model MINLAKE2020 was modified from daily MINLAKE2012 by incorporating chlorophyll-a, nutrients, and biochemical oxygen demand models into the regional year-around temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) model. MINLAKE2020 was applied to six lakes (varying depth and trophic status) in Minnesota focusing on studying the internal nutrient dynamics. The average root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) of simulated water temperature and DO in six lakes are 1.51 °C and 2.33 mg/L, respectively, when compared with profile data over 2–4 years. The average RMSE of DO simulation decreased by 24.2% when compared to the MINLAKE2012 model. The internal nutrient dynamics was studied by analyzing time series of phosphorus, chlorophyll-a, and DO over several years and by performing a sensitivity analysis of model parameters. A long-term simulation (20 years) of Lake Elmo shows that the simulated phosphorus release from sediment under the anoxic condition results in surface phosphorus increase, which matches with the observed trends. An average internal phosphorus loading increase of 92.3 kg/year increased the average daily phosphorus concentration by 0.0087 mg/L.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited