Special Issue "Advances in Groundwater and Surface Water Monitoring and Management"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2019.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Beatrice M. S. Giambastiani
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences BiGeA, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
Tel. +39 0544 937318
Interests: hydrogeology; groundwater and transport modelling; saline aquifer; hydrogeochemistry; integrated coastal and water management
Dr. Nicolas Greggio
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences BiGeA, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
Tel. +39 0544 937357
Interests: coastal hydrogeology; coastal management; salinization; high resolution electrical resistivity tomography (ERT); sustainable water management; agro-ecosystems; remote sensing
Prof. Marco Antonellini
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences BiGeA, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
Interests: quantitative structural geology and geomechanics with special interest in fracture and fault mechanics; petrophysical characterization and fluid flow modelling in fractured reservoirs and aquifers; coastal zone hydrology and hydrogeology; relationships between surface water and groundwater; effects of water quality on vegetation

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

This Special Issue on “Advances in Groundwater and Surface Water Monitoring and Management” invites papers presenting the recent developments and progress in water monitoring, and those discussing the sustainable management of groundwater and surface water resources.

The quality and quantity of water resources can be affected by several natural and anthropic factors, and in the near future there will be increasing competition for water amongst uses and users. It is well known that climate change (CC) will also exacerbate these tensions and will increase uncertainty about good quality water availability and demand in the future. Monitoring water availability, withdrawals, and consumption enables the use of mechanisms to promote improved allocation between users and uses, as well as sustainable water management solutions for its more effective storage and conservation. Similarly, water quality data are needed in order to support decision making on health and environmental issues and to address the appropriate management of these water.

In this context, the development and implementation of novel technologies and approaches of water monitoring is fundamental in order to reduce time and cost, and to allow for early warning and rapid response to events (such as floods, surface and ground water contaminations, etc.), as well as to promote sustainable practices for water storage and conservation.

This Special Issue will include research on surface water and groundwater monitoring via different assessment methods, focusing on the recent advancement in water quality monitoring (i.e., contaminants of emerging concern CECs in surface water, groundwater salinization, isotopes, etc.), the use of innovative water monitoring technologies for in-situ and on-line real time measurements, and pioneering sustainable management practices able to mitigate CC effects on surface water and groundwater. We invite you to submit papers that involve innovative methods to deal with the continuous-timed monitoring of water, real-time applications, groundwater and surface water interactions, agro-ecosystem approaches for storage and conservation, and any other innovative solutions to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the quality and quantity of water resources.

We also welcome theoretical and applied analyses about monitoring methods, procedures, and integrated approaches involving both analytical and numerical solutions for data processing. We are particularly open to contributions that demonstrate novel developments and applications in any step of water monitoring and sustainable management, in different geographic and climatic contexts, both at national and local scales. Studies reporting the application of remote sensing techniques are also encouraged.

Dr. Beatrice M. S. Giambastiani
Dr. Nicolas Greggio
Prof. Marco Antonellini
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • water monitoring
  • groundwater and surface water interaction
  • water resources assessment
  • groundwater and surface water storage and conservation
  • groundwater and surface water in agro-ecosystem
  • innovative technologies

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
High Resolution Monitoring of Seawater Intrusion in a Multi-Aquifer System-Implementation of a New Downhole Geophysical Tool
Water 2019, 11(9), 1877; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091877 - 09 Sep 2019
Abstract
Monitoring of seawater intrusion is extremely important for the management of coastal aquifers, and therefore requires reliable and high-frequency monitoring tools. This paper describes the use of a new near field and downhole geophysical tool that monitors seawater intrusion in boreholes with high [...] Read more.
Monitoring of seawater intrusion is extremely important for the management of coastal aquifers, and therefore requires reliable and high-frequency monitoring tools. This paper describes the use of a new near field and downhole geophysical tool that monitors seawater intrusion in boreholes with high vertical resolution. This sensor is further used to study the impact of pumping on water electrical conductivity profiles (ECP) at the fresh-saline water interface. The new device was installed in a confined calcareous sandstone aquifer along the northern Israeli coast. The site includes two monitoring wells and one pumping well located at distances of 50, 75 and 125 m from shoreline, respectively. The new geophysical tool, called the subsurface monitoring device (SMD), was examined and compared to water an electric conductivity profiler (ECP) and a conductivity temperature depth (CTD) driver’s data. All methods show similar salinity trends, and changes in pumping regime were clearly identified with both the SMD and CTD. The advantage of using the SMD tool is the high temporal and spatial resolution measurement, which is transferred via internet and can be analyzed and interpreted in real time. Another advantage of the SMD is that it measures the electrical resistivity of the aquifer mostly outside the well, while both water ECP and the CTD measure in-well electrical conductivity; therefore, are subjected to the artefact of vertical flow in the well. Accordingly, while the CTD shows an immediate and sharp response when pumping is stopped, the SMD provides a gradual electric conductivity (EC) change, demonstrating that stability is reached just after a few days, which illustrates, more precisely, the hydrological response of the aquifer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Groundwater and Surface Water Monitoring and Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Increase and Spatial Variation in Soil Infiltration Rates Associated with Fibrous and Tap Tree Roots
Water 2019, 11(8), 1700; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081700 - 16 Aug 2019
Abstract
Trees play important roles in urban stormwater management; through the loosening of soils by root growth, they increase infiltration and reduce runoff, helping to mitigate flooding and recharge groundwater. Malus baccata with fibrous roots and Sophora japonica with tap roots were studied experimentally [...] Read more.
Trees play important roles in urban stormwater management; through the loosening of soils by root growth, they increase infiltration and reduce runoff, helping to mitigate flooding and recharge groundwater. Malus baccata with fibrous roots and Sophora japonica with tap roots were studied experimentally to assess their enhancement of soil infiltration. A blank test without a tree was conducted for comparison. Steady-state soil infiltration rates at the bottom of test tanks were measured as 0.28 m/d, 0.33 m/d, and 0.61 m/d for the blank test, M. baccata, and S. japonica, respectively. This represents a 19% increase in the infiltration rate by planting M. baccata and a 118% increase by planting S. japonica. A larger increase in the infiltration rate by S. japonica is consistent with the effects of deeper and more vertical roots that help loosen deeper soils. Spatial variations in soil infiltration rates were also measured. Infiltration rates for M. baccata (1.06 m/d and 0.62 m/d) were larger than those for S. japonica (0.91 m/d and 0.51 m/d) at the same depths (0.35 m and 0.70 m); this is consistent with the expected effects of the shallower and more lateral roots of M. baccata. This study furthers our understanding of the roles of trees in watersheds and urban environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Groundwater and Surface Water Monitoring and Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Determining the Relation between Groundwater Flow Velocities and Measured Temperature Differences Using Active Heating-Distributed Temperature Sensing
Water 2019, 11(8), 1619; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081619 - 05 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Active Heating-Distributed Temperature Sensing (AH-DTS) has the potential to allow for the measurement of groundwater flow velocities in situ. We placed DTS fiber-optic cables combined with a heating wire in direct contact with aquifer sediments in a laboratory scale groundwater flow simulator. Using [...] Read more.
Active Heating-Distributed Temperature Sensing (AH-DTS) has the potential to allow for the measurement of groundwater flow velocities in situ. We placed DTS fiber-optic cables combined with a heating wire in direct contact with aquifer sediments in a laboratory scale groundwater flow simulator. Using this setup, we empirically determined the relationship between Δ T , the temperature difference by constant and uniform heating of the DTS cable and the background temperature of the groundwater system, and horizontal groundwater flow velocity. Second, we simulated the observed temperature response of the system using a plan-view heat transfer flow model to calibrate for the thermal properties of the sediment and to optimize cable setup for sensitivity to variation in groundwater flow velocities. Additionally, we derived an analytical solution based on the heat flow equation that can be used to explicitly calculate flow velocity from measured Δ T for this specific AH-DTS cable setup. We expect that this equation, after calibration for cable constitution, is valid for estimating groundwater flow velocity based on absolute temperature differences measured in field applications using this cable setup. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Groundwater and Surface Water Monitoring and Management)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Management of Seawater Intrusion in Coastal Aquifers: A Review
Water 2019, 11(12), 2467; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122467 - 24 Nov 2019
Abstract
Seawater intrusion (SWI) is one of the most challenging and widespread environmental problems that threaten the quality and sustainability of fresh groundwater resources in coastal aquifers. The excessive pumping of groundwater, associated with the lack of natural recharge, has exacerbated the SWI problem [...] Read more.
Seawater intrusion (SWI) is one of the most challenging and widespread environmental problems that threaten the quality and sustainability of fresh groundwater resources in coastal aquifers. The excessive pumping of groundwater, associated with the lack of natural recharge, has exacerbated the SWI problem in arid and semi-arid regions. Therefore, appropriate management strategies should be implemented in coastal aquifers to control the impacts of SWI problems, considering acceptable limits of economic and environmental costs. The management of coastal aquifers involves the identification of an acceptable ultimate landward extent of the saline water body and the calculation of the amount of seaward discharge of freshwater that is necessary to keep the saline–freshwater interface in a seacoast position. This paper presents a comprehensive review of available hydraulic and physical management strategies that can be used to reduce and control SWI in coastal aquifers. Advantages and disadvantages of the different approaches are presented and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Groundwater and Surface Water Monitoring and Management)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Monitoring and modelling interactions between the Montagna dei Fiori aquifer and the Castellano stream (Central Apennines, Italy)

Alberto Tazioli 1, Nicolò Colombani 1, Stefano Palpacelli 1, Micòl Mastrocicco 2,* and Torquato Nanni 1

1   SIMAU, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche 12, 60131 Ancona, Italia

2   DiSTABiF, Università della Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta, Italia

*  Correspondence: [email protected]

Abstract: Groundwater is the most used water resource around the world, but due to population growth and climate changes the alluvial lowland aquifers have been often already polluted and over-exploited in intensively inhabited regions like the Mediterranean area. Thus, more and more frequently water managers try to find groundwater for drinking purposes in mountain regions, even if the drilling costs are much more expensive than in alluvial settings. Nevertheless, indiscriminate pumping in upland regions could lower the water table and affect springs and streams baseflow discharge. For this reason, it is necessary to provide a robust conceptual model of the stream/aquifer exchanges at the watershed scale and an integrated water resources management became pivotal. In this study we present a monitoring and modelling approach that allowed to locate and quantify the exchange fluxes between the Montagna dei Fiori fractured aquifer and the Castellano stream which is fed by the aquifer. Continuous monitoring of flow discharge and temperature during an entire hydrological year (2018-2019) in two monitoring stations along the stream allowed to discriminate between the baseflow and the run-off components. Then, a numerical flow model using MODFLOW-2005, was set up at the entire watershed scale. The numerical model was built up using information from hydrogeological and geomechanical surveys, borehole logs and pumping tests performed appositely for this project. Since in the Montagna dei Fiori aquifer there is a lack of monitoring wells and the only active pumping wells are the one drilled for this project, the model was calibrated using the daily baseflow fluxes observed in the Castellano stream (hydrological year 2018-2019), instead of the classical piezometric heads monitoring network usually employed in lowland alluvial aquifers. After the sensitivity analysis performed with PEST, the recharge was found to be the most uncertain parameter followed by hydraulic conductivity zonation and specific storage. Besides, the anisotropy due to the compressive faults system exerted a non-negligible effect on groundwater heads and main flow directions. The calibrated model was then used to perform scenarios on the drawdown induced by using different pumping rates. The aim of this study was to show that it is possible to implement and calibrate complex numerical groundwater flow models also in mountain regions which are often affected by scarce heads monitoring data, by using hydrogeological and geomechanical surveys and daily stream discharge rates. This is a key aspect, since in mountain regions groundwater monitoring networks are usually lacking due to deep groundwater table and the associated high drilling costs.

Keywords: Continuous stream monitoring; fractured aquifer; model calibration; drinking water resources; integrated water management

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