Next Article in Journal
System Dynamics Approach for Assessing the Behaviour of the Lim Reservoir System (Serbia) under Changing Climate Conditions
Next Article in Special Issue
Increase and Spatial Variation in Soil Infiltration Rates Associated with Fibrous and Tap Tree Roots
Previous Article in Journal
Wave-Induced Oscillatory Flow Over a Sloping Rippled Bed
Open AccessArticle

Determining the Relation between Groundwater Flow Velocities and Measured Temperature Differences Using Active Heating-Distributed Temperature Sensing

Wetsus, European Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, Oostergoweg 9, 8911 MA Leeuwarden, The Netherlands
Department of Watermanagement, Arcadis Nederland B.V., Beaulieustraat 22, 6814 DV Arnhem, The Netherlands
Department of Subsurface and Groundwater, Deltares, P.O. Box 85467, 3508 Al Utrecht, The Netherlands
Nelen & Schuurmans, Zakkendragershof 34, 3511 AE Utrecht, The Netherlands
Hydrology and Quantitative Water Management, Department of Environmental Sciences, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
Department of Physical Geography, Utrecht University, 3584 CS Utrecht, The Netherlands
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(8), 1619;
Received: 12 July 2019 / Revised: 31 July 2019 / Accepted: 1 August 2019 / Published: 5 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Groundwater and Surface Water Monitoring and Management)
PDF [5297 KB, uploaded 20 August 2019]


Active Heating-Distributed Temperature Sensing (AH-DTS) has the potential to allow for the measurement of groundwater flow velocities in situ. We placed DTS fiber-optic cables combined with a heating wire in direct contact with aquifer sediments in a laboratory scale groundwater flow simulator. Using this setup, we empirically determined the relationship between Δ T , the temperature difference by constant and uniform heating of the DTS cable and the background temperature of the groundwater system, and horizontal groundwater flow velocity. Second, we simulated the observed temperature response of the system using a plan-view heat transfer flow model to calibrate for the thermal properties of the sediment and to optimize cable setup for sensitivity to variation in groundwater flow velocities. Additionally, we derived an analytical solution based on the heat flow equation that can be used to explicitly calculate flow velocity from measured Δ T for this specific AH-DTS cable setup. We expect that this equation, after calibration for cable constitution, is valid for estimating groundwater flow velocity based on absolute temperature differences measured in field applications using this cable setup. View Full-Text
Keywords: distributed temperature sensing; groundwater monitoring; groundwater velocities distributed temperature sensing; groundwater monitoring; groundwater velocities

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Bakx, W.; Doornenbal, P.J.; van Weesep, R.J.; Bense, V.F.; Oude Essink, G.H.P.; Bierkens, M.F.P. Determining the Relation between Groundwater Flow Velocities and Measured Temperature Differences Using Active Heating-Distributed Temperature Sensing. Water 2019, 11, 1619.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top