Special Issue "Fluvial Hydraulics and Applications"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydraulics and Hydrodynamics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (14 May 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Michele Iervolino
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Università degli Studi della Campania ‘Luigi Vanvitelli’, Aversa (CE), Italy
Interests: two-phase models for fast geomorphic flows; non-Newtonian fluids over impermeable and permeable bottom; surface instability of open-channel flows; flood prediction for clear-water and debris flows
Prof. Dr. Cristiana Di Cristo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Edile e Ambientale, Università di Napoli Federico II, Napoli, Italy
Interests: morphodynamic modeling in unsteady conditions; mud and debris flows; surface instability in newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fluvial hydraulics concerns the flow of water in rivers and channels, along with the active interaction with erodible beds, the sediment transport, and the consequent morphodynamical changes. These problems are studied at different scales, through theoretical, numerical, and experimental modeling. Research advances are taking place in all the fluvial hydraulics aspects, and technical applications are gaining a novel vision, being more and more oriented towards ecological-friendly river management and sustainable engineering design.

For this Special Issue, original contributions dealing with problems of fluvial hydraulics and relative applications are invited. Papers based on field studies, numerical simulations, and laboratory experiments are suitable. The objective is to showcase and share the state-of-the-art scientific knowledge in research and applications in the field of fluvial hydraulics. The issue will also publish a selection of papers from the Special Session “River Hydraulics and Applications” of the IAHR Congress Europe 2020 in Warsaw.

All the papers considered for publication in the Special Issue will be subject to the review process according to the journal requirements.

A non-exhasustive list of pertaining topics comprises: hydrodynamics of river flow in unsteady condition and/or in channel with complex geometries; relationship between flow and turbulence structures and sediment transport; flow interaction with structures also in the presence of erodible bed; river morphodynamic evolution; and the impact of floods and effects of failure of hydraulic structure, such as levees or dams.

Prof. Dr. Michele Iervolino
Prof. Dr. Cristiana Di Cristo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • extreme floods
  • river management
  • morphodynamics and sediment transport
  • ecohydraulics
  • hydropower
  • experimental techniques
  • climate change
  • risk management

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Article
Turbulent Flow Structure in a Confluence: Influence of Tributaries Width and Discharge Ratios
Water 2021, 13(4), 465; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040465 - 11 Feb 2021
Viewed by 467
Abstract
River channel confluences are rather important interfaces where intense changes in physical, mixing and sediment transport processes occur. Following an experimental campaign, the main flow mechanisms in confluences and the development of the shear layer formed between the two tributary flows are presented. [...] Read more.
River channel confluences are rather important interfaces where intense changes in physical, mixing and sediment transport processes occur. Following an experimental campaign, the main flow mechanisms in confluences and the development of the shear layer formed between the two tributary flows are presented. As the experimental flow cases comprised changes in the flow discharge and channel widths of the tributaries, the influence of width and discharge ratios on the turbulent flow structure and shear layer is also evaluated. Main findings indicate that changes in the difference between momentum ratio in the tributaries have a significant effect on the magnitude and location of flow mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluvial Hydraulics and Applications)
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Article
Impact Force of a Geomorphic Dam-Break Wave against an Obstacle: Effects of Sediment Inertia
Water 2021, 13(2), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13020232 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 532
Abstract
The evaluation of the impact force on structures due to a flood wave is of utmost importance for estimating physical damage and designing adequate countermeasures. The present study investigates, using 2D shallow-water approximation, the morphodynamics and forces caused by a dam-break wave against [...] Read more.
The evaluation of the impact force on structures due to a flood wave is of utmost importance for estimating physical damage and designing adequate countermeasures. The present study investigates, using 2D shallow-water approximation, the morphodynamics and forces caused by a dam-break wave against a rigid obstacle in the presence of an erodible bed. A widely used coupled equilibrium model, based on the two-dimensional Saint–Venant hydrodynamic equations combined with the sediment continuity Exner equation (SVEM), is compared with a more complex two-phase model (TPM). Considering an experimental set-up presented in the literature with a single rigid obstacle in a channel, two series of tests were performed, assuming sand or light sediments on the bottom. The former test is representative of a typical laboratory experiment, and the latter may be scaled up to a field case. For each test, two different particle diameters were considered. Independently from the particle size, it was found that in the sand tests, SVEM performs similarly to TPM. In the case of light sediment, larger differences are observed, and the SVEM predicts a higher force of about 26% for both considered diameters. The analysis of the flow fields and the morphodynamics shows these differences can be essentially ascribed to the role of inertia of the solid particles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluvial Hydraulics and Applications)
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Article
Structural Properties of the Static Armor during Formation and Reestablishment in Gravel-Bed Rivers
Water 2020, 12(7), 1845; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071845 - 28 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 498
Abstract
The formation and reestablishment of bed structural properties in the static armor layer is an important research subject. To address this issue, we conducted a series of static armor layer experiments in a laboratory flume that focused on formation and reestablishment. Through an [...] Read more.
The formation and reestablishment of bed structural properties in the static armor layer is an important research subject. To address this issue, we conducted a series of static armor layer experiments in a laboratory flume that focused on formation and reestablishment. Through an automatic measurement system, we obtained a real-time bed load transport rate. The bed surface elevation at different flow intensities was obtained using a PTS (Photo Terrain Scanning) system. The results show that the formation and reestablishment of the bed load transport rate in the static armor layer increased from zero to its peak before decaying. The bed structure response was found to be highly dependent on the unevenness of the bed surface elevation. The bed surface elevation of a static armor layer in a laboratory flume is considered as a two-dimensional random field. In a two-dimensional random field, the changes in bed elevation are characterized using statistical parameters. Statistical parameters are evaluated from precise digital elevation models (DEMs) of bed surfaces. Experimental results provide the change of probability distribution functions (PDFs) and second-order structure functions of bed elevations between formation and reestablishment after breaking the static armor layer. By quantitatively analyzing the changes in these statistical parameters, we quantified the difference between the bed structure in the static armor layer formation and the new static armor layer formed after being broken. Thus, this finding reveals that the bed structure of the static armor layer formed by different flow intensities is different, and this difference can be quantified using statistical methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluvial Hydraulics and Applications)
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Article
Discharge Estimation Using Tsallis and Shannon Entropy Theory in Natural Channels
Water 2020, 12(6), 1786; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061786 - 23 Jun 2020
Viewed by 614
Abstract
Streamflow measurements during high floods is a challenge for which the World Meteorological Organization fosters the development of innovative technologies for achieving an accurate estimation of the discharge. The use of non-contact sensors for monitoring surface flow velocities is of interest to turn [...] Read more.
Streamflow measurements during high floods is a challenge for which the World Meteorological Organization fosters the development of innovative technologies for achieving an accurate estimation of the discharge. The use of non-contact sensors for monitoring surface flow velocities is of interest to turn these observed values into a cross-sectional mean flow velocity, and subsequently, into discharge if bathymetry is given. In this context, several techniques are available for the estimation of mean flow velocity, starting from observed surface velocities. Among them, the entropy-based methodology for river discharge assessment is often applied by leveraging the theoretical entropic principles of Shannon and Tsallis, both of which link the maximum flow velocity measured at a vertical of the flow area, named the y-axis, and the cross-sectional mean flow velocity at a river site. This study investigates the performance of the two different entropic approaches in estimating the mean flow velocity, starting from the maximum surface flow velocity sampled at the y-axis. A velocity dataset consisting of 70 events of measurements collected at two gauged stations with different geometric and hydraulic characteristics on the Po and Tiber Rivers in Italy was used for the analysis. The comparative evaluation of the velocity distribution observed at the y-axis of all 70 events of measurement was closely reproduced using both the Shannon and Tsallis entropy approaches. Accurate values in terms of the cross-sectional mean flow velocity and discharge were obtained with average errors not exceeding 10%, demonstrating that the Shannon and Tsallis entropy concepts were equally efficient for discharge estimation in any flow conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluvial Hydraulics and Applications)
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