Special Issue "Erosion and Torrent Control"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2018).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Panagiotis Stefanidis Website E-Mail
Laboratory of Mountainous Water Management and Control, Faculty of Forestry and Natural Environment, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloníki, Greece
Interests: soil erosion and mountainous catchment degrafation; landslide management and control; cause and mechanism of debris and mud flow phenomena; torrent control works; check dams design and dimmensioning; sediment sources areas; flash floods phenomena; forest hydrology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will include papers referring to mountainous torrent hazards. The torrential phenomena that occur in many areas, such as landslides, debris, mud flow, erosion, and check dams could be examined, as well as their causes and mechanism. Additionally, appropriate torrent control against these phenomena could be examined.

Prof. Dr. Panagiotis Stefanidis
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • torrent control
  • debris
  • mountainous catchment
  • torrent structure

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Forecasting the Urban Expansion Effects on the Design Storm Hydrograph and Sediment Yield Using Artificial Neural Networks
Water 2019, 11(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11010031 - 24 Dec 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Urban expansion substantially alters the impervious areas in a catchment, which in turn affects surface runoff and sediment yield in the downstream areas. In this study, the Land Transformation Model (LTM) was used to forecast the urban land expansion in a catchment, whilst [...] Read more.
Urban expansion substantially alters the impervious areas in a catchment, which in turn affects surface runoff and sediment yield in the downstream areas. In this study, the Land Transformation Model (LTM) was used to forecast the urban land expansion in a catchment, whilst future land use maps were employed according to the Soil Conservation Service Curve Number method (SCS-CN) and the Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (MUSLE) model, so as to examine the urbanization effects on runoff and sediment yield production respectively. Compared to pristine conditions, urban land is anticipated to increase from 6% in 1979 to 31% by 2027. The latter expansion pointed to an increase of peak discharge by 2.2–2.6 times and of flood volume by 1.6–2.1 times, with the sediment yield ranging between 0.47 to 1.05 t/ha for the upcoming 2027 period. Furthermore, the urban sprawl effects on all the latter variables were more profound during short duration storm events. Forecasting urban expansion through integrated artificial neural networks (ANN) and geographic information system (GIS) techniques, in order to calculate the associated design storm hydrograph and sediment yield, is of great importance, in order to properly plan and design hydraulic works that can sustain future urban development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Erosion and Torrent Control)
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Open AccessFeature PaperCommunication
Conceptual Framework for Sediment Management in Torrents
Water 2018, 10(12), 1718; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10121718 - 24 Nov 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Torrential catchments are complex systems showing a huge diversity of sediment and flow regime reactions. Therefore, it seems reasonable to decrease the complexity by introducing a conceptual framework to obtain a general idea of the torrential system’s behavior. The aim of the manuscript [...] Read more.
Torrential catchments are complex systems showing a huge diversity of sediment and flow regime reactions. Therefore, it seems reasonable to decrease the complexity by introducing a conceptual framework to obtain a general idea of the torrential system’s behavior. The aim of the manuscript is to provide a conceptual framework and a stepwise procedure to develop a reproducible sediment management concept. This involves starting with a definition of torrential process types. These processes are then routed through the drainage system, which is divided into homogeneous reaches. Each reach transfers a flow process from the upstream node to the adjacent downstream reach, based on driving geomorphic factors of sediment mobilization and deposition. Additionally, a sediment budget, derived from cumulative erosion and deposition volumes, is calculated. The estimated flow process together with the sediment budget enables the selection of a sediment management strategy. The implementation of the strategy is based upon the selection of functions, which define the desired modification with regard to the torrential system. Ultimately, the sum of each function’s performance must lead to the fulfilment of the overall protection objective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Erosion and Torrent Control)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Climate Change on Soil Erosion in a Mountainous Mediterranean Catchment (Central Pindus, Greece)
Water 2018, 10(10), 1469; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10101469 - 18 Oct 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess soil erosion changes in the mountainous catchment of the Portaikos torrent (Central Greece) under climate change. To this end, precipitation and temperature data were derived from a high-resolution (25 × 25 km) RegCM3 regional climate [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to assess soil erosion changes in the mountainous catchment of the Portaikos torrent (Central Greece) under climate change. To this end, precipitation and temperature data were derived from a high-resolution (25 × 25 km) RegCM3 regional climate model for the baseline period 1974–2000 and future period 2074–2100. Additionally, three GIS layers were generated regarding land cover, geology, and slopes in the study area, whereas erosion state was recognized after field observations. Subsequently, the erosion potential model (EPM) was applied to quantify the effects of precipitation and temperature changes on soil erosion. The results showed a decrease (−21.2%) in annual precipitation (mm) and increase (+3.6 °C) in mean annual temperature until the end of the 21st century, and the above changes are likely to lead to a small decrease (−4.9%) in soil erosion potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Erosion and Torrent Control)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Erosion Control Works: Case Study—Grdelica Gorge, the South Morava River (Serbia)
Water 2018, 10(8), 1094; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10081094 - 17 Aug 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
The aim of this research was to analyse the changes in the soil erosion intensity caused by erosion control works (ECW) in Grdelica Gorge (The South Morava River) in the period between 1953 and 2016. For the purpose of quantifying the erosion intensity [...] Read more.
The aim of this research was to analyse the changes in the soil erosion intensity caused by erosion control works (ECW) in Grdelica Gorge (The South Morava River) in the period between 1953 and 2016. For the purpose of quantifying the erosion intensity changes, the erosion potential model (EPM) was used to calculate the annual gross erosion (W), sediment transport (G), and erosion coefficient (Z) in the study area. As a result of the performed technical and biotechnical erosion control works, there was a general decreasing trend in the intensity of soil erosion processes in the last 63 years. The specific annual gross erosion in Grdelica Gorge was 1920.34 m3/km−2/year−1 in 1953, while in 2016 it was 492.42 m3/km−2/year−1. The specific sediment transport was 1421.05 m3/km−2/year−1 in 1953 and 364.39 m3/km−2/year−1 in 2016. Due to the changes in the intensity of erosion processes, the specific annual gross erosion in the study area decreased by 1427.92 m3/km−2/year−1 and the specific sediment transport by 1056.66 m3/km−2/year−1. The value of the erosion coefficient was reduced from Z = 0.84 in 1953 to Z = 0.32 in 2016. The results show that there is a significant correlation between the soil erosion intensity (erosion coefficient) and ECW (biotechnical works) performed in Grdelica Gorge. The permanent control of erosion processes in Grdelica Gorge is very important for torrential flood prevention and protection of two very important traffic routes (Belgrade-Skopje-Athens railway and motorway—Corridor X), as well as settlements, local roads, and other facilities in this area. Furthermore, these results are the basis for future water mana­gement projects, soil and environmental protection, spatial planning, agriculture, and other human activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Erosion and Torrent Control)
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Open AccessArticle
Bed Morphology around Various Solid and Flexible Grade Control Structures in an Unstable Gravel-Bed River
Water 2018, 10(7), 822; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070822 - 21 Jun 2018
Abstract
Flexible grade control structures (GCSs) are increasingly popular alternative countermeasures consisting of conventional solid structures for protecting riverbeds from erosion. Among this structure typology, tetrahedron framed permeable weirs (TFPW) were proposed to stabilize riverbeds and protect cross-river structures. The bed morphology as well [...] Read more.
Flexible grade control structures (GCSs) are increasingly popular alternative countermeasures consisting of conventional solid structures for protecting riverbeds from erosion. Among this structure typology, tetrahedron framed permeable weirs (TFPW) were proposed to stabilize riverbeds and protect cross-river structures. The bed morphology as well as the interactions among the structures, water flow and bed features have not been systematically analyzed. Therefore, based on the field data collected in the Jianjiang River, a series of physical model experiments were carried out in this study to investigate the river morphology in unstable gravel-bed rivers under five different structural conditions, including no GCSs, solid bed sills and flexible TFPW with three different layout types. Data on bedform features, topography changes and the volume of erosion or deposition were collected and analyzed. The results indicated that dramatic general erosion and bed armoring would occur without any protection. The bed would be protected from upstream erosion with bed sills, but, at the same time, in addition to general erosion and bed armoring downstream of the structures, deep local scour might pose a serious threat to structural safety. TFPW had good protective effects on riverbeds by preventing the bed from erosion and even inducing sediment deposition both upstream and downstream from the structures. Because the flexible structures have advantages in ecology, structural stability and construction, TFPW were suitable and optimal for riverbed stabilization in unstable gravel-bed rivers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Erosion and Torrent Control)
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Open AccessArticle
The Influences of Riparian Vegetation on Bank Failures of a Small Meadow-Type Meandering River
Water 2018, 10(6), 692; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060692 - 25 May 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
The outer banks of meadow-type meandering river bends in the source zone of the Yellow River are especially vulnerable to bank failure. This study aims to understand how vegetation affects bank stability and the mechanism of bank failure, especially via a prediction of [...] Read more.
The outer banks of meadow-type meandering river bends in the source zone of the Yellow River are especially vulnerable to bank failure. This study aims to understand how vegetation affects bank stability and the mechanism of bank failure, especially via a prediction of the width of a collapsed block of small rivers through a proposed bank stability equilibrium as well as field sampling. Soil and vegetation properties were surveyed at four sites near the riverbank in 2013–2016. It was found that the failed blocks had, on average, a dimension of 0.865 m (width) by 0.817 m (thickness) by 2.228 m (length). The variability in the size of all the failed blocks was attributed predominantly to the roots of plants. Block thickness could be logarithmically predicted by root length at R2 ≥ 0.76. The block width predicted from the proposed equilibrium equation deviated from in situ measurements by approximately 22.1%, a discrepancy highly subject to the overestimation of root reinforcement using Wu’s model. By reducing the coefficient of Wu’s model from 1.2 to 0.85, the proposed equilibrium equation was reliable to predict the width of bank collapse. However, its applicability to other study areas needs to be verified in further studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Erosion and Torrent Control)
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Open AccessArticle
Geometrical Characterization of Sediment Deposits at the Confluence of Mountain Streams
Water 2018, 10(4), 401; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10040401 - 29 Mar 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
Debris flow injections from tributaries into a main mountain stream generate deposits of sediments which, in turn, result in obstruction and eventual damming of the river section. This contribution presents the results of a series of flume experiments on the dynamics of these [...] Read more.
Debris flow injections from tributaries into a main mountain stream generate deposits of sediments which, in turn, result in obstruction and eventual damming of the river section. This contribution presents the results of a series of flume experiments on the dynamics of these deposits, with reference to three different types of blockage: no blockage, partial blockage, and full blockage. Results show that the shape of the deposit is mainly controlled by the ratio between the debris flow discharge and the main river discharge. The experimental dataset is used to develop a deposit resilience stability index based on the shape of the deposit contour retrieved from photos taken from above. The proposed index is based on the invariant elliptic Fourier coefficients and the dimensionless transverse obstruction parameter. The elliptic Fourier coefficients give information on the symmetry of the deposit contour. High symmetry indicates more stable and resilient deposits. The proposed index is calibrated on the basis of the flume experiments and tested with field data. The results are quite promising and suggest that the index can be appropriate for a fast hazard assessment of multiple debris flow deposits at a regional scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Erosion and Torrent Control)
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