Special Issue "The Impacts of Climate Change on Hydrologic Extremes"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 September 2022 | Viewed by 2689

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Hung Soo Kim
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil Engineering, Inha University, Incheon, Korea
Interests: climate change; chaos; floods and droughts; wetland hydrology
Prof. Dr. Ji Chen
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong (HKU), Hong Kong, China
Interests: water resources; climate change; multi-scale terrestrial hydrologic processes; urbanization; remote sensing application to hydrology; natural hazards
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Bellie Sivakumar
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400076, India
Interests: rainfall and streamflow modeling; sediment transport; large-scale water projects; ecosystem modeling; human–water interactions; complex systems and networks; chaos theory; scaling and fractals
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The aim of this Special Issue is to bring together scientists and practitioners in the fields of climate-induced hydrologic extremes and natural disasters under climate change  and provide a place for discussions about the exchange of the latest developments in the field. Papers will be invited in the general topic of the development and application of the related tools and theories with hydrology and climatology. Papers can deal, among others, with one of the following topics: the statistical and AI modeling of the impact of climate change in hydrologic extremes, data acquisition validation and homogenization, ungauged sites, local and regional frequency analysis, statistical modeling of extremes, risk and reliability in hydro-climatology, and time series analysis. The focus of this issue has particular relevance given the changes in the characteristics of extreme hydrologic events and the increased vulnerability of society to the impacts of these events. There is hence an increasingly critical need to understand and manage the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation. The IPCC is currently preparing its AR6 and will release AR6 soon. The report will provide the latest assessment of scientific knowledge about the warming of the planet and future projections. Therefore, we also need to assess its impacts on the hydrologic system and manage the risks from hydrologic extremes. This issue represents an opportunity for scientists and practitioners to meet and report new ways in which the analyses of hydrologic extremes can be integrated in an effective and useful manner in order to meet the challenges being faced in the field of hydrologic extremes.

Prof. Dr. Hung Soo Kim
Prof. Dr. Ji Chen
Prof. Dr. Bellie Sivakumar
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • climate change
  • hydrologic extremes
  • climate change adaptation
  • natural disasters
  • risk analysis and management
  • vulnerability

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Article
Development of a Multiple-Drought Index for Comprehensive Drought Risk Assessment Using a Dynamic Naive Bayesian Classifier
Water 2022, 14(9), 1516; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14091516 - 09 May 2022
Viewed by 294
Abstract
Korea has made various efforts to reduce drought damage; however, socio-economic damage has increased in recent years due to climate change, which has led to increasing frequency and intensity of drought. In South Korea, because precipitation is concentrated in the summer, drought damage [...] Read more.
Korea has made various efforts to reduce drought damage; however, socio-economic damage has increased in recent years due to climate change, which has led to increasing frequency and intensity of drought. In South Korea, because precipitation is concentrated in the summer, drought damage will be significant in the event of failure of water resources management. Seasonal and regional imbalances in precipitation have contributed to recent extreme droughts in South Korea. In addition, population growth and urbanization have led to increased water use and contributed to water shortage. Drought risk analysis must address multiple contributing factors and comprehensively assess the effects or occurrence of future droughts, which are essential for planning drought mitigation to cope with actual droughts. Drought mitigation depends on the water supply capacity during dry spells. In this study, a dynamic naive Bayesian classifier-based multiple drought index (DNBC-MDI) was developed by combining the strengths of conventional drought indices and water supply capacity. The DNBC-MDI was applied to a bivariate drought frequency analysis to evaluate hydrologic risk of extreme droughts. In addition, future changes of the risk were investigated according to climate change scenarios. As a result, the drought risk had a decreasing trend from the historic period of 1974–2016 to the future period of 2017–2070, then had an increasing trend in the period of 2071–2099. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impacts of Climate Change on Hydrologic Extremes)
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Article
Development and Application of a Rainfall Temporal Disaggregation Method to Project Design Rainfalls
Water 2022, 14(9), 1401; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14091401 - 27 Apr 2022
Viewed by 337
Abstract
A climate model is essential for hydrological designs considering climate change, but there are still limitations in employing raw temporal and spatial resolutions for small urban areas. To solve the temporal scale gap, a temporal disaggregation method of rainfall data was developed based [...] Read more.
A climate model is essential for hydrological designs considering climate change, but there are still limitations in employing raw temporal and spatial resolutions for small urban areas. To solve the temporal scale gap, a temporal disaggregation method of rainfall data was developed based on the Neyman–Scott Rectangular Pulse Model, a stochastic rainfall model, and future design rainfall was projected. The developed method showed better performance than the benchmark models. It produced promising results in estimating the rainfall quantiles for recurrence intervals of less than 20 years. Overall, the analysis results imply that extreme rainfall events may increase. Structural/nonstructural measures are urgently needed for irrigation and the embankment of new water resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impacts of Climate Change on Hydrologic Extremes)
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Article
Inundation Analysis of Coastal Urban Area under Climate Change Scenarios
Water 2022, 14(7), 1159; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14071159 - 04 Apr 2022
Viewed by 515
Abstract
The inundation of urban areas has frequently occurred as a result of the localized heavy precipitation and flash floods in both South Korea and globally. Metropolitan areas with higher property value and population density than rural areas need practical strategies to reduce flood [...] Read more.
The inundation of urban areas has frequently occurred as a result of the localized heavy precipitation and flash floods in both South Korea and globally. Metropolitan areas with higher property value and population density than rural areas need practical strategies to reduce flood damage. Therefore, this study aims to perform an inundation analysis of coastal urban areas under a climate change scenario. Changwon city is one of the typical coastal metropolitan regions in South Korea. Severe flooding has occurred in this area caused by a combination of precipitation and sea-level rise enhanced by the typhoon, Sanba, in September 2012. At that time, daily precipitation was 65.5 mm, which is lower than the capable amount of rainfall of the drainage system. However, the river stage combined with the tidal wave caused by a typhoon and heavy precipitation exceeded the flood warning level. This study performed the flood inundation analysis for a part of Changwon city using the SWMM model, a two-dimensional urban flood analysis model. Furthermore, we considered the climate change scenarios to predict the potential flood damage that may occur in the future. As a result, as the future target period increases, both the flooding area and the inundation depth increase compared to the results of the inundation simulation according to the current precipitation and sea-level conditions. The inundation area increased by 2.6–16.2% compared to the current state, and the flooded depths would be higher than 1 m or more. We suggest a structural method to reduce inundation damages to consider extreme precipitation and tidal wave effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impacts of Climate Change on Hydrologic Extremes)
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Article
Mega Flood Inundation Analysis and the Selection of Optimal Shelters
Water 2022, 14(7), 1031; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14071031 - 24 Mar 2022
Viewed by 411
Abstract
In recent decades, extreme storm events due to climate change have frequently occurred worldwide, a few of which have even occurred consecutively; we class such rainfall events as mega events. That is to say, if the inter-arrival time between rainfall events with a [...] Read more.
In recent decades, extreme storm events due to climate change have frequently occurred worldwide, a few of which have even occurred consecutively; we class such rainfall events as mega events. That is to say, if the inter-arrival time between rainfall events with a 100-year frequency is less than the IETD (Inter-Event Time Definition), the event can be considered a mega event. Therefore, the aim of this study was to implement flood inundation analysis using the hypothetical mega event from two consecutively occurring events of 100-year frequency, and select the optimal shelters using a developed method for minimizing casualties from floods. The Gyeongan stream basin, which is a tributary of the Namhan River in Korea, was selected as the study area. This study calculates mega flood discharge using the SSARR (Stream Synthesis and Reservoir Regulation) model, and conducts a flood inundation analysis of mega floods via the level pool method and the HEC-GeoRAS model. An inundation map was constructed, and the inundated area was classified into three zones and five administrative districts. Sixteen shelters were selected as candidates based on the criteria of the local government safety management plans and the Guidelines for Establishing the Disaster Relief Plan of 2013. To evaluate the candidates for evacuation in each district, we selected seven evaluation indicators from the shelter criteria of several countries, and calculated the weights of the indicators using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. As a result, four optimal shelters were selected in the study area. The results of the study can be used as the basic information for analyzing mega natural disaster events and inundation, and for establishing evacuation shelters, which are one of the non-structural flood protection measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impacts of Climate Change on Hydrologic Extremes)
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Article
Spatiotemporal Analysis of Drought and Agriculture Standardized Residual Yield Series Nexuses across Punjab, Pakistan
Water 2022, 14(3), 496; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14030496 - 07 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 702
Abstract
Food security for the growing global population is closely associated with the variations in agricultural yield at the regional scale. Based on this perspective, the current study was designed to determine the impacts of drought on wheat production in the Punjab province, which [...] Read more.
Food security for the growing global population is closely associated with the variations in agricultural yield at the regional scale. Based on this perspective, the current study was designed to determine the impacts of drought on wheat production in the Punjab province, which is the agricultural hub of Pakistan. Wheat is a staple food in Pakistan, and Punjab provides a major contribution to the total wheat production of the country. Therefore, Punjab is vital to scientific concerns regarding the evaluation of climatic impacts on the annual wheat yield. The current study offers a better understanding of the drought impacts on wheat in Punjab during 2001–2019. The Standardized Precipitation Index was used to assess the impact of drought stress on the wheat yield. Its temporal evolution indicates the recurrent appearance of drought episodes during the wheat cropping season. Furthermore, meteorological drought was noticed in all study years except for 2019. The results reveal that 2002 experienced severe drought conditions. The frequency of drought was calculated as 29% for SPI-12. The relationships between soil moisture, the Standardized Yield Residual Series (SYRS), and the detrended SPI at lags of 1–12 months indicate that zones 1 and 2 are more sensitive to dry conditions. The results presented in this study provide evidence to authorities responsible for developing policies in the context of natural hazards, particularly droughts, and for preparing drought mitigation plans and implementing the adaptation strategies to minimize the effects of drought on wheat yields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impacts of Climate Change on Hydrologic Extremes)
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