Special Issue "Water Quality and the Public Health"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water and One Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2022) | Viewed by 6804

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Varvara A. Mouchtouri
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Thessaly, 22 Papakyriazi Str., Larissa 41222, Greece
Interests: Hygiene; Epidemiology
Prof. Dr. Konstantin Korotkov
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Member of Scientific Counsel, St. Petersburg Universities LETI and GPU, St. Petersburg, Russia
Interests: water; psychophysiology; psychology; bio-fields; subtle energies

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The microbiological and chemical quality of potable and recreational water can affect public health. The effects can be acute or long term, including infectious water-related diseases, as well as chronic diseases. Efforts to ensure the supply of safe water are constantly evolving. Managing the risks requires an interdisciplinary holistic approach at the international, national and the local levels, as well as including building/water facility operators and individuals. Water can be contaminated at any stage from the source to its consumption or its final use. Measures to control the risks are applied at the water source, storage and distribution stages. Sanitation, hygiene, technology, treatment, education and others are of consideration when establishing measures to control these risks. This Special Issue focuses on the current research of potable and recreational water quality, the measures applied to ensure the safety of water, as well as the evidence on the effectiveness of risk management approaches and health impacts.

Dr. Varvara A. Mouchtouri
Guest Editor

Prof. Dr. Konstantin Korotkov
Co-Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • water quality
  • microbiological chemical parameters
  • legionella monitoring
  • treatment safety
  • health risk assessment

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Article
Microbiological Evaluation of Water Used in Dental Units
Water 2022, 14(6), 915; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14060915 - 15 Mar 2022
Viewed by 564
Abstract
In modern dentistry, dental units are used for the treatment of patients’ teeth, and they need water to operate. Water circulates in a closed vessel system and finally reaches the mucous membranes of the patient as well as the dentist themselves. Therefore, the [...] Read more.
In modern dentistry, dental units are used for the treatment of patients’ teeth, and they need water to operate. Water circulates in a closed vessel system and finally reaches the mucous membranes of the patient as well as the dentist themselves. Therefore, the microbiological safety of this water should be a priority for physicians. This study aims to identify and determine the microbial count, expressed in CFU/mL, in water samples from various parts of the dental unit that are in direct contact with the patient. Thirty-four dental units located in dentistry rooms were analysed. The dentistry rooms were divided into three categories: surgical, conservative, and periodontal. It was found that in surgical rooms, the bacterial count was 1464.76 CFU/mL, and the most common bacterium was Staphylococcus pasteuri—23.88% of the total bacteria identified. In dentistry rooms where conservative treatments were applied, the average bacterial concentration was 8208.35 CFU/mL, and the most common bacterium was Ralsonia pickettii (26.31%). The periodontal rooms were also dominated by R. pickettii (45.13%), and the average bacterial concentration was 8743.08 CFU/mL. Fungi were also detected. Rhodotorula spp., Alternaria spp., and Candida parapsilosis were found to be the most common bacteria which are potentially harmful. This study indicates the need for effective decontamination of the water that is used in dental units and for constant monitoring of the level of contaminants present in the closed vessel system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality and the Public Health)
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Article
Dimercaptosuccinic Acid Functionalized Polystyrene Column for Trace Concentration Determination of Heavy Metal Ions: Experimental and Theoretical Calculation Studies
Water 2021, 13(21), 3056; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213056 - 01 Nov 2021
Viewed by 491
Abstract
Metal ion studies in wastewater are required on a regular basis for environmental monitoring and assessment. Less metal ion concentrations and the interference from complex sample matrices remains challenging for instrumental quantification. Herein, we proposed a fix-bed solid phase extraction method, consisting of [...] Read more.
Metal ion studies in wastewater are required on a regular basis for environmental monitoring and assessment. Less metal ion concentrations and the interference from complex sample matrices remains challenging for instrumental quantification. Herein, we proposed a fix-bed solid phase extraction method, consisting of a newly prepared dimercaptosuccinic acid functionalized polystyrene beads. The ligand forms stable complex with Hg(II), Pb(II), and Cd(II), evident by experimental as well as density functional theory. The metal-ligand stabilization energy calculations, suggested the higher selectivity of polystyrene dimercaptosuccinic acid (PSDMSA) toward Pb(II) compared to Cd(II) and Hg(II). The prepared adsorbent was utilized to enrich Hg(II), Pb(II), and Cd(II) ions from environmental samples. Column parameters were studied in detail and optimized accordingly. The preconcentration factor for Hg(II), Pb(II), and Cd(II) were found to be 900, with the preconcentration limit of 0.74 µg L−1. The detection limit for Pb(II), Cd(II), and Hg(II) ions was found to be 1.3 ± 0.2, 1.5 ± 0.3, and 1.8 ± 0.3 ng L−1, respectively. The method accuracy was tested against systematic and continuous errors by standard addition method (<5% RSD). Real samples was successfully analyzed following the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality and the Public Health)
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Article
Removal Performance of Faecal Indicators by Natural and Silver-Modified Zeolites of Various Particle Sizes under Dynamic Batch Experiments: Preliminary Results
Water 2021, 13(20), 2938; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202938 - 19 Oct 2021
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Abstract
One of the oldest and most promising applications of natural zeolites (NZs) is in water and wastewater treatment processes. Modified zeolites (MZs), with improved ion exchange and adsorption capacities, have been extensively applied to the removal of pollutants from aqueous solutions. However, the [...] Read more.
One of the oldest and most promising applications of natural zeolites (NZs) is in water and wastewater treatment processes. Modified zeolites (MZs), with improved ion exchange and adsorption capacities, have been extensively applied to the removal of pollutants from aqueous solutions. However, the application of MZs in pathogens or indicator organisms has not been extensively explored. This study examines the effect of both natural Greek zeolite (NZ), with a clinoptilolite content of up to 85% (OLYMPUS SA-INDUSTRIAL MINERALS), and modified Greek zeolite through incorporation with silver ions (Ag-MNZ), on the survival of two selected faecal indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis). A series of dynamic batch experiments with a slow agitation of 12 rpm were conducted at a constant ambient temperature (22°C) in order to examine the inactivation of the above bacteria by NZ and Ag-MNZ. It was found that the Ag-MNZ resulted in a much higher reduction in the bacterial numbers when compared to the NZ and the control (absence of zeolites). Moreover, the reduction in bacterial numbers was affected by NZ particle size, with higher removal rates observed for coarse (1–3 mm) than for fine (0–1 mm) NZ. Finally, the E. faecalis was found to be more resistant than E. coli to Ag-MNZ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality and the Public Health)
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Article
Legionella spp. Colonization in Water Systems of Hotels Linked with Travel-Associated Legionnaires’ Disease
Water 2021, 13(16), 2243; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162243 - 17 Aug 2021
Viewed by 847
Abstract
Hotel water systems colonized with Legionella spp. have been the source of travel-associated Legionnaires’ disease, and cases, clusters and outbreaks continue to be reported worldwide each year. A total of 132 hotels linked with travel-associated Legionnaires’ disease, as reported through the European Legionnaires’ [...] Read more.
Hotel water systems colonized with Legionella spp. have been the source of travel-associated Legionnaires’ disease, and cases, clusters and outbreaks continue to be reported worldwide each year. A total of 132 hotels linked with travel-associated Legionnaires’ disease, as reported through the European Legionnaires’ Disease Surveillance Network, were inspected and tested for Legionella spp. during 2000–2019 by the public health authorities of the island of Crete (Greece). A total of 3311 samples were collected: 1885 (56.93%) from cold water supply systems, 1387 (41.89%) from hot water supply systems, 37 (1.12%) were swab samples and two (0.06%) were soil. Of those, 685 (20.69%), were collected from 83 (62.89%) hotels, testing positive (≥50 CFU/L) for Legionella pneumophila) serogroups 1–10, 12–14 and non-pneumophila species (L. anisa, L. erythra, L. tusconensis, L. taurinensis, L. birminghamensis, L. rubrilucens, L. londiniesis, L. oakridgensis, L. santicrusis, L. brunensis, L. maceacherii). The most frequently isolated L. pneumophila serogroups were 1 (27.92%) and 3 (17.08%). Significantly higher isolation rates were obtained from hot water supply systems (25.96%) versus cold water systems (16.98%) and swab samples (13.51%). A Relative Risk (R.R.) > 1 (p < 0.0001) was calculated for hot water temperature <55 °C (R.R.: 4.43), chlorine concentrations <0.2 mg/L (R.R.: 2.69), star ratings <4 (R.R.: 1.73) and absence of Water Safety Plan implementation (R.R.: 1.57). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality and the Public Health)
Article
Dental Fluorosis in Children from Aguascalientes, Mexico: A Persistent Public Health Problem
Water 2021, 13(8), 1125; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081125 - 20 Apr 2021
Viewed by 885
Abstract
This paper estimates the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among participants in the first wave of The Aguascalientes Longitudinal Study of Child Development (EDNA). The analytical sample includes 1052 children in 100 public elementary schools. Dental fluorosis is determined using the Modified [...] Read more.
This paper estimates the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among participants in the first wave of The Aguascalientes Longitudinal Study of Child Development (EDNA). The analytical sample includes 1052 children in 100 public elementary schools. Dental fluorosis is determined using the Modified Dean’s Index. There is a 43% general dental fluorosis prevalence, and the estimated Community Fluorosis Index is 0.99. Five municipalities report average groundwater fluoride concentrations above the official Mexican guideline value of 1.5 mg/L. In those municipalities, there is a 50% average dental fluorosis prevalence. An ordered logistic regression analysis indicates that obesity in participants increases the likelihood of suffering more severe dental fluorosis symptoms compared with normal-weight participants (OR = 1.62, p < 0.05). Households consuming tap water are more likely to have children suffering more severe dental fluorosis symptoms (OR = 1.63, p < 0.05). Children aged 8 years are more likely to present more severe dental fluorosis symptoms than their peers aged 7 years (OR = 1.37, p < 0.05). Dental fluorosis will persist as a public health problem in Aguascalientes State unless appropriate technologies for fluoride removal from water are installed and operated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality and the Public Health)
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Article
Assessing the Risk of Legionella Infection through Showering with Untreated Rain Cistern Water in a Tropical Environment
Water 2021, 13(7), 889; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13070889 - 24 Mar 2021
Viewed by 829
Abstract
In September 2017, two category-5 hurricanes Irma and Maria swept through the Caribbean Sea in what is now known as the region’s most active hurricane season on record, leaving disastrous effects on infrastructure and people’s lives. In the U.S. Virgin Islands, rain cisterns [...] Read more.
In September 2017, two category-5 hurricanes Irma and Maria swept through the Caribbean Sea in what is now known as the region’s most active hurricane season on record, leaving disastrous effects on infrastructure and people’s lives. In the U.S. Virgin Islands, rain cisterns are commonly used for harvesting roof-top rainwater for household water needs. High prevalence of Legionella spp. was found in the cistern water after the hurricanes. This study carried out a quantitative microbial risk assessment to estimate the health risks associated with Legionella through inhalation of aerosols from showering using water from cisterns after the hurricanes. Legionella concentrations were modeled based on the Legionella detected in post-hurricane water samples and reported total viable heterotrophic bacterial counts in cistern water. The inhalation dose was modeled using a Monte Carlo simulation of shower water aerosol concentrations according to shower water temperature, shower duration, inhalation rates, and shower flow rates. The risk of infection was calculated based on a previously established dose–response model from Legionella infection of guinea pigs. The results indicated median daily risk of 2.5 × 10−6 to 2.5 × 10−4 depending on shower temperature, and median annual risk of 9.1 × 10−4 to 1.4 × 10−2. Results were discussed and compared with household survey results for a better understanding of local perceived risk versus objective risk surrounding local water supplies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality and the Public Health)
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Review

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Review
Various Natural and Anthropogenic Factors Responsible for Water Quality Degradation: A Review
Water 2021, 13(19), 2660; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13192660 - 27 Sep 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 1566
Abstract
Recognition of sustainability issues around water resource consumption is gaining traction under global warming and land utilization complexities. These concerns increase the challenge of gaining an appropriate comprehension of the anthropogenic activities and natural processes, as well as how they influence the quality [...] Read more.
Recognition of sustainability issues around water resource consumption is gaining traction under global warming and land utilization complexities. These concerns increase the challenge of gaining an appropriate comprehension of the anthropogenic activities and natural processes, as well as how they influence the quality of surface water and groundwater systems. The characteristics of water resources cause difficulties in the comprehensive assessment regarding the source types, pathways, and pollutants behaviors. As the behavior and prediction of widely known contaminants in the water resources remain challenging, some new issues have developed regarding heavy metal pollutants. The main aim of this review is to focus on certain essential pollutants’ discharge from anthropogenic activities categorized based on land-use sectors such as industrial applications (solid/liquid wastes, chemical compounds, mining activities, spills, and leaks), urban development (municipal wastes, land use practices, and others), and agricultural practices (pesticides and fertilizers). Further, important pollutants released from natural processes classified based on climate change, natural disasters, geological factors, soil/matrix, and hyporheic exchange in the aquatic environment, are also discussed. Moreover, this study addresses the major inorganic substances (nitrogen, fluoride, and heavy metals concentrations). This study also emphasizes the necessity of transdisciplinary research and cross-border communication to achieve sustainable water quality using sound science, adaptable legislation, and management systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality and the Public Health)
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