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Article

Removal Performance of Faecal Indicators by Natural and Silver-Modified Zeolites of Various Particle Sizes under Dynamic Batch Experiments: Preliminary Results

1
Environmental and Microbiology Unit, Department of Public Health, Medical School, University of Patras, 26504 Patras, Greece
2
Department of Environment, Ionian University, 29100 Zakynthos, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Varvara A. Mouchtouri and Konstantin Korotkov
Water 2021, 13(20), 2938; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202938
Received: 20 September 2021 / Revised: 12 October 2021 / Accepted: 18 October 2021 / Published: 19 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality and the Public Health)
One of the oldest and most promising applications of natural zeolites (NZs) is in water and wastewater treatment processes. Modified zeolites (MZs), with improved ion exchange and adsorption capacities, have been extensively applied to the removal of pollutants from aqueous solutions. However, the application of MZs in pathogens or indicator organisms has not been extensively explored. This study examines the effect of both natural Greek zeolite (NZ), with a clinoptilolite content of up to 85% (OLYMPUS SA-INDUSTRIAL MINERALS), and modified Greek zeolite through incorporation with silver ions (Ag-MNZ), on the survival of two selected faecal indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis). A series of dynamic batch experiments with a slow agitation of 12 rpm were conducted at a constant ambient temperature (22°C) in order to examine the inactivation of the above bacteria by NZ and Ag-MNZ. It was found that the Ag-MNZ resulted in a much higher reduction in the bacterial numbers when compared to the NZ and the control (absence of zeolites). Moreover, the reduction in bacterial numbers was affected by NZ particle size, with higher removal rates observed for coarse (1–3 mm) than for fine (0–1 mm) NZ. Finally, the E. faecalis was found to be more resistant than E. coli to Ag-MNZ. View Full-Text
Keywords: Escherichia coli; Enterococcus faecalis; natural zeolites; modified zeolites; silver ions; inactivation Escherichia coli; Enterococcus faecalis; natural zeolites; modified zeolites; silver ions; inactivation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Syngouna, V.I.; Vantarakis, A. Removal Performance of Faecal Indicators by Natural and Silver-Modified Zeolites of Various Particle Sizes under Dynamic Batch Experiments: Preliminary Results. Water 2021, 13, 2938. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202938

AMA Style

Syngouna VI, Vantarakis A. Removal Performance of Faecal Indicators by Natural and Silver-Modified Zeolites of Various Particle Sizes under Dynamic Batch Experiments: Preliminary Results. Water. 2021; 13(20):2938. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202938

Chicago/Turabian Style

Syngouna, Vasiliki I., and Apostolos Vantarakis. 2021. "Removal Performance of Faecal Indicators by Natural and Silver-Modified Zeolites of Various Particle Sizes under Dynamic Batch Experiments: Preliminary Results" Water 13, no. 20: 2938. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202938

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