Special Issue "Application of Sustainable Chemical and Biological Methods for Pollutants Removal from Water"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Quality and Contamination".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2022 | Viewed by 4366

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Efthimia A. Kaprara
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: analytical chemistry; environment; heavy metals; micropollutants; nanomaterials; drinking water; wastewater; green chemistry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Purification of water has for a long time been a critical issue for scientific research as it constitutes a fundamental component for the evolution of human civilization and animal life in a clean environment. However, the exponential increase in the world population and changes to average welfare have led to the intense pollution of water streams with toxic heavy metals, non-biodegradable organic micropollutants, and other harmful compounds. This Special Issue aims to provide a platform for environmental scientists and engineers to publish their research findings and provide insight into novel, effective, and sustainable technologies that can be applied for the removal of harmful compounds from potable water aquifers and wastewater streams. Special focus will be given to chemical and biological methodologies with a remarkable impact on the sustainability of societies, high technology readiness level, and featuring promising perspectives for technical upscale in real applications.

Dr. Efthimia A. Kaprara
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • environment
  • heavy metals
  • micropollutants
  • nanomaterials
  • drinking water
  • wastewater
  • green chemistry

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Article
Acid Mine Drainage Treatment Using a Process Train with Laterite Mine Waste, Concrete Waste, and Limestone as Treatment Media
Water 2022, 14(7), 1070; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14071070 - 29 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 577
Abstract
Without treatment, the harmful effects of acid mine drainage (AMD) lead to the destruction of surrounding ecosystems, including serious health impacts to affected communities. Active methods, like chemical neutralization, are the most widely used approach to AMD management. However, these techniques require constant [...] Read more.
Without treatment, the harmful effects of acid mine drainage (AMD) lead to the destruction of surrounding ecosystems, including serious health impacts to affected communities. Active methods, like chemical neutralization, are the most widely used approach to AMD management. However, these techniques require constant inputs of energy, chemicals, and manpower, which become unsustainable in the long-term. One promising and sustainable alternative for AMD management is to use passive treatment systems with locally available and waste-derived alkalinity-generating materials. In this study, the treatment of synthetic AMD with laterite mine waste (LMW), concrete waste, and limestone in a successive process train was elucidated, and the optimal process train configuration was determined. Six full factorial analyses were performed following a constant ratio of 0.75 mL AMD/g media with a 15-min retention time. The evolution of the pH, redox potential (Eh), total dissolved solids (TDS), heavy metals concentration, and sulfates concentrations were monitored as the basis for evaluating the treatment performance of each run. LMW had the highest metal and sulfates removal, while concrete waste caused the largest pH increase. A ranking system was utilized in which each parameter was normalized based on the Philippine effluent standards (DENR Administrative Order (DAO) 2016–08 and 2021–19). Run 4 (Limestone-LMW-Concrete waste) showed the best performance, that is, the pH increased from 1.35 to 8.08 and removed 39% Fe, 94% Ni, 72% Al, and 52% sulfate. With this, the process train is more effective to treat AMD, and the order of the media in treatment is significant. Full article
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Article
Long-Term Sustainability of Using Hemodialyzers to Inexpensively Provide Pathogen-Free Water to Remote Villages Lacking Electricity
Water 2022, 14(3), 471; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14030471 - 04 Feb 2022
Viewed by 567
Abstract
The provision of clean water to remote communities is a major goal of both the World Health Organization and the United Nations. We report on the long-term sustainability of filter-sterilizing polluted water in remote villages in Ghana that lack electricity. Contaminated water pumped [...] Read more.
The provision of clean water to remote communities is a major goal of both the World Health Organization and the United Nations. We report on the long-term sustainability of filter-sterilizing polluted water in remote villages in Ghana that lack electricity. Contaminated water pumped several times a week via a gasoline pump into a 1000 L elevated tank is filtered through polysulfone hemodialyzers on demand. The 3 nm fiber pore size rejects all bacteria, parasites, and viruses. Villagers flush organic matter from the dialyzers thrice daily to maintain a flow of up to 250 L/h. Having previously reported a 73% reduction in diarrheal episodes, we now address system sustainability. After passing through the hemodialyzer filters, a fecally polluted water source remains consistently free of pathogens even after the system has been in place for >1 year in most villages. Filters are easily replaced when needed. Daily cost for unlimited clean water is less than USD 2.22 per village over five years. Villagers have continued to independently fill the tank and flush the system, because they appreciate the clean water and health benefits. We demonstrate that over 2–6 years this system providing pathogen-free drinking water can be maintained independently by villagers for long-term sustainability. It does not require electricity nor disinfectants to be added to the product water and is ready for far broader application in similarly remote settings. Full article
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Article
Field Test of In Situ Groundwater Treatment Applying Oxygen Diffusion and Bioaugmentation Methods in an Area with Sustained Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) Contaminant Flow
Water 2022, 14(2), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14020192 - 11 Jan 2022
Viewed by 455
Abstract
Contamination of groundwater by petroleum hydrocarbons is a widespread environmental problem in many regions. Contamination of unsaturated and saturated zones could also pose a significant risk to human health. The main purpose of the study was to assess the efficiency of biodegradation of [...] Read more.
Contamination of groundwater by petroleum hydrocarbons is a widespread environmental problem in many regions. Contamination of unsaturated and saturated zones could also pose a significant risk to human health. The main purpose of the study was to assess the efficiency of biodegradation of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in situ, in an area with loam and sandy loam soils, and to identify features and characteristics related to groundwater treatment in an area with a persistent flow of pollutants. We used methods of biostimulation (oxygen as stimulatory supplement) and bioaugmentation to improve water quality. Oxygen was added to the groundwater by diffusion through silicone tubing. The efficiency of groundwater treatment was determined by detailed monitoring. Implementation of the applied measure resulted in an average reduction in TPH concentration of 73.1% compared with the initial average concentration (4.33 mg/L), and in the local area, TPH content was reduced by 95.5%. The authors hope that this paper will contribute to a better understanding of the topic of groundwater treatment by in situ biodegradation of TPH. Further studies on this topic are particularly needed to provide more data and details on the efficiency of groundwater treatment under adverse geological conditions. Full article
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Article
Influence of Particle Size of River Sand on the Decontamination Process in the Slow Sand Filter Treatment of Micro-Polluted Water
Water 2022, 14(1), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14010100 - 04 Jan 2022
Viewed by 416
Abstract
Slow sand filters (SSFs) have been widely used in the construction of water plants in rural areas. It is necessary to find river sand of suitable particle size to improve SSF treatment of micro-polluted water so as to ensure the effective and long-term [...] Read more.
Slow sand filters (SSFs) have been widely used in the construction of water plants in rural areas. It is necessary to find river sand of suitable particle size to improve SSF treatment of micro-polluted water so as to ensure the effective and long-term operation of these plants. In this study, SSF1# (particle size of 0.1–0.5 mm), SSF2# (particle size of 0.5–1 mm), and SSF3# (particle size of 1–1.5 mm) were selected. The physical absorption, CODMn and NH4+-N removal effect, and microbial community were analyzed. According to Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption model fitting, the smaller the particle size of the river sand, the more pollutants are adsorbed under the same conditions. SSF1# has the shortest membrane-forming time, highest CODMn and NH4+-N removal rate, and highest Shannon estimator, indicating that there are more abundant microbial species in the biofilm. Mesorhizobium, Pannonibacter, Pseudoxanthomonas, Aquabacterium, Devosia, and other bacteria have different proportions in each system, each forming its own stable biological chain system. The effluent quality of the three SSFs can meet drinking water standards. However, river sand with a particle size range of 0.1–0.5 mm is easily blocked, and thus the recommended size range for SSF is 0.5–1 mm. Full article
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Article
A Biological Method of Treating Surface Water Contaminated with Industrial Waste Leachate
Water 2021, 13(24), 3644; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243644 - 17 Dec 2021
Viewed by 717
Abstract
The progressive chemicalization of all areas of everyday life and the development of the industry cause the appearance of various types of pollutants, both in groundwater and surface waters. Kalina Pond (Świętochłowice, Poland) is an example of a degraded water reservoir as a [...] Read more.
The progressive chemicalization of all areas of everyday life and the development of the industry cause the appearance of various types of pollutants, both in groundwater and surface waters. Kalina Pond (Świętochłowice, Poland) is an example of a degraded water reservoir as a result of many years of activity, among others hard coal mines, storing metallurgical waste by zinc plants, and the activities of the Hajduki Chemical Plants from Chorzów. Inadequate securing of waste heaps resulted in the penetration of pollutants, i.e., phenol, petroleum compounds, PAHs, cyanides, and heavy metals. The aim of the research was to determine the suitability of biopreparations for the removal of pollutants. The research used a bacterial biopreparation from BioArcus, “DBC plus type R5”, to remove petroleum compounds and phenol. Then, in order to restore the microbiological balance, “ACS ODO-1” from the biopreparation was used. The research was carried out in laboratory conditions, using three variants: direct dosing of biopreparations, dosing of biopreparations previously activated by multiplication on the medium, and dosing of biopreparations into water after filtration on a diatomite bed. The optimal method of recultivating water from a reservoir was to filter this water through a diatomite bed and then dose the multiplied bacteria. After the filtration process, the obtained percentage of TOC reduction allowed for the rapid development of microorganisms from the biopreparation, despite the 100 times lower dose used. In addition, the application of lyophilized biopreparation to contaminated water resulted in a very fast biodegradation effect of pollutants, despite the high concentration of numerous toxic compounds. Full article
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Article
Disinfection of Dental Chair Water Using Aqueous Chlorine Dioxide
Water 2021, 13(23), 3442; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13233442 - 04 Dec 2021
Viewed by 685
Abstract
Chlorine dioxide is a safe, environmentally friendly disinfecting agent. In this study, aqueous chlorine dioxide (ACD) was used to improve the water quality of dental chairs. However, chlorine dioxide is readily released from ACD solutions under open atmosphere conditions. Described herein is a [...] Read more.
Chlorine dioxide is a safe, environmentally friendly disinfecting agent. In this study, aqueous chlorine dioxide (ACD) was used to improve the water quality of dental chairs. However, chlorine dioxide is readily released from ACD solutions under open atmosphere conditions. Described herein is a water purification and disinfection system using ACD. The system was designed, fabricated, and integrated into an existing dental chair water system. This system is referred to as an ACD dental chair. Because ClO2 readily degasses from ACD, there needs to be a way to maintain and measure the ACD solution in real time. In our studies, we found that pH and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) change as a function of chlorine dioxide concentration and are easily controlled and measured. The dosing of the ACD was designed to begin at 800 mV and stop dosing at 810 mV in the ACD dental chair. Through use of this continuous monitoring and automatic dosing system, the water ORP was controlled between 800 and 860 mV. This range is the effective concentration of chlorine dioxide that is without chlorine-like odor and microorganism growth. The ACD dental chair controlled the total bacterial count to <5 CFU/mL and the chlorite concentration was less than 0.0004 mg/L, meeting legal standards of Taiwan, the USA, and China. In addition to the application of ACD in dental chairs, it may also be used in closed water systems for food, cosmetics, beverages, and other industries. Full article
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