Soluble Microbial Products and Perfluorinated Compounds in Wastewater Treatment

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Wastewater Treatment and Reuse".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2023) | Viewed by 35417

Special Issue Editors

School of Environment and Architecture, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200433, China
Interests: water treatment; endocrine disruption estrogens; water purification technologies; water analysis; drinking water quality; water chemistry; disinfection byproducts; water purification; water quality research in water distribution systems
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Guest Editor
College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
Interests: water treatment; advanced oxidation; endocrine disruption estrogens
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
College of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Hangzhou 310018, China
Interests: water treatment; micropollutants removal in waters

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic fluorinated surfactants composed of a carbon backbone and a charged functional group. Their unique chemical structure provides hydrophobic, oil repellent, high temperature resistant, and significant reduction in water surface tension properties, making them widely used in pesticides, medicines, cosmetics, clothes, inks, oil production, food packaging, electrical wiring, and fire-fighting foams. However, some studies have shown that PFASs have potential hepatotoxicity, neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, immunotoxicity, thyroid disruption, cardiovascular toxicity, pulmonary toxicity, and renal toxicity to organisms. Therefore, it is necessary to develop effective methods to remove or degrade PFASs.

On the global market, more than 3000 PFASs, among them perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), are frequently detected in various environmental matrices. A variety of technologies has been developed to remove or degrade perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in water, including biodegradation, adsorption (e.g., activated carbon, porous resin, mineral materials, and carbonaceous nanomaterials), and advanced oxidation (e.g., sonochemical, electrochemical, optical induction, and fenton). Among the above methods, biodegradation is not mature, and its degradation cycle is long and incomplete, which indicates the need for further development. At present, adsorption and advanced oxidation are effective methods to degrade PFOA, but their mechanism and intermediate products are not clear. Traditional adsorbents face the problem of less adsorption capacity and difficult recovery, and the defluorination rate of advanced oxidation process is low. Therefore, this Special Issue will focus on the development of new adsorbents and the improvement of defluorination rate of advanced oxidation, and investigating their mechanisms and intermediate products.

Dr. Cong Li
Dr. Kejia Zhang
Dr. Ailan Yan
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs)
  • perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)
  • degradation technologies
  • adsorption
  • advanced oxidation
  • mechanism
  • defluorination rate
  • intermediate products
  • disinfection byproducts

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

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5 pages, 187 KiB  
Editorial
Soluble Microbial Products and Perfluorinated Compounds in Wastewater Treatment
by Cong Li
Water 2023, 15(24), 4216; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15244216 - 7 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1036
Abstract
Water is vital for all living organisms and many manufacturing industries [...] Full article

Research

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15 pages, 2091 KiB  
Article
Efficient Inactivation and Removal of a Harmful Marine Algae—Heterosigma akashiwo—By UV-Assisted Permanganate Oxidation
by Jianwei Zeng, Xuegang Chen, Shidi Jin and Jiajia Fan
Water 2023, 15(20), 3633; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15203633 - 17 Oct 2023
Viewed by 887
Abstract
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) caused by Heterosigma akashiwo are occurring in coastal waters frequently, posing a great risk to marine environments and subsequent treatment processes like desalination. UV-assisted permanganate oxidation (UV/KMnO4) is recognized as an innovative advanced oxidation process. This study [...] Read more.
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) caused by Heterosigma akashiwo are occurring in coastal waters frequently, posing a great risk to marine environments and subsequent treatment processes like desalination. UV-assisted permanganate oxidation (UV/KMnO4) is recognized as an innovative advanced oxidation process. This study investigated the inactivation and removal efficiencies of H. akashiwo cells by UV/KMnO4. Algal cells were effectively disintegrated into fragments by UV/KMnO4. Also, the degradation of photosynthetic pigments, membrane lipid peroxidation, and severe oxidative stress in algal cells was observed. The removal efficiency of algal cells reached 80.2% by 20 min of UV/KMnO4 oxidation, with a KMnO4 dosage of 5 mg L−1. In addition, the residual algal cells could be completely removed by a subsequent self-settling process, without an additional coagulation procedure. The fragmentation of algal cells caused by UV/KMnO4 may facilitate the formation of algal flocs, thereby improving the cell settleability. Furthermore, UV254 was significantly reduced by UV/KMnO4, which is expected to reduce the formation of disinfection byproducts and membrane fouling. This study elucidates that UV/KMnO4 can be a promising technique for the efficient treatment of harmful marine algae. Full article
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24 pages, 6124 KiB  
Article
Performance and Mechanism of Fe3O4 Loaded Biochar Activating Persulfate to Degrade Acid Orange 7
by Qijia Zhu, Kai Zhang, Jiani Xu, Xinyu Wei, Lixia Shi, Sumita, Cong Li and Eric Lichtfouse
Water 2023, 15(10), 1849; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15101849 - 12 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1788
Abstract
Azo dye wastewater is a common type of organic wastewater that often presents a significant challenge due to its gloomy color, high toxicity, and resistance to degradation. The discharge of such wastewater directly into natural water bodies can pose a severe threat to [...] Read more.
Azo dye wastewater is a common type of organic wastewater that often presents a significant challenge due to its gloomy color, high toxicity, and resistance to degradation. The discharge of such wastewater directly into natural water bodies can pose a severe threat to both ecological security and human health. Traditional biological treatment methods are often ineffective in treating industrial pollutants, but advanced oxidation technologies, such as persulfate (PS), offer unique advantages due to their strong oxidation ability and short reaction times. This study investigates the use of modified biochar (BC) material and catalyzed persulfate advanced oxidation technology to adsorb and separate acid orange 7 (AO7), a common industrial pollutant, from water and further oxidize and degrade it. Wood chips were used as biological templates to create an efficient, eco-friendly, and reusable adsorbent and catalytic material. In this paper, the adsorption effect of Fe3O4@BC on AO7 in water was compared, the adsorption kinetics and isotherm of Fe3O4@BC on different pollutants were studied, and the possible adsorption mechanism was proposed based on the relevant characterization. Adsorption kinetics describes the rate and quality of adsorption by studying the adsorption capacity in the adsorption process. Furthermore, the activated PS system was used to explore the degradation of AO7 at room temperature. First, the catalytic performance of Fe3O4@BC was evaluated by examining the amounts of PS and Fe3O4@BC, the initial pH, the ionic strength, and the reusability of Fe3O4@BC. Then, a possible degradation mechanism was proposed through electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), free radical quenching experiment, and density functional theory (DFT) analysis. The results of this study suggest that modified biochar material and catalyzed persulfate advanced oxidation technology offer an effective and eco-friendly method for treating AO7 in wastewater. Full article
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Review

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20 pages, 1570 KiB  
Review
Odorous Substances in Urban Drainage Pipelines and the Removal Technology: A Review
by Sha Jin, Kejia Zhang, Cheng Cen, Youwen Shuai, Tingting Hu and Ruyin Mao
Water 2023, 15(6), 1157; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15061157 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2696
Abstract
The existence of odors in drainage pipelines is one of the most prominent environmental problems that urban residents complain about nowadays. Odorous substances in sewage can cause corrosion and erosion in drainage pipelines, and even lead to great harm to the human body [...] Read more.
The existence of odors in drainage pipelines is one of the most prominent environmental problems that urban residents complain about nowadays. Odorous substances in sewage can cause corrosion and erosion in drainage pipelines, and even lead to great harm to the human body and environments. Ideas for in situ odor control can be divided into two main categories: the elimination of odorous substances and the inhibition of the production of odorous substances. However, there is a lack of comprehensive summary of in situ overall deodorization techniques, which has limited the wide application of these methods. We conducted a systematic review to summarize recent advances in in situ overall deodorization. Firstly, the main odorous substances in drainage pipelines and their basic characteristics are concluded. Special attention has been paid to volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) and nitrogen-containing compounds, as the main odorous substances. Subsequently, typical sources of these odorous substances are summarized based on their formation mechanisms. Then, in situ deodorization techniques (including pipeline condition optimization techniques, odor source control techniques, chemical control techniques, and biological control techniques) are introduced. Finally, upcoming research efforts on deodorization mechanism improvement, research gap supplementation, and economic efficiency enhancement to meet practical conditions are proposed. Full article
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23 pages, 2095 KiB  
Review
A Review of Research Progress in the Preparation and Application of Ferrate(VI)
by Jianping Yu, Sumita, Kai Zhang, Qijia Zhu, Chengzhang Wu, Saikai Huang, Yunshu Zhang, Sijing Yao and Weihai Pang
Water 2023, 15(4), 699; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15040699 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3515
Abstract
Ferrate(VI) is a green and efficient water treatment agent for drinking and wastewater. It is widely used in water treatment because it has multi-functional uses such as oxidation, algae removal, disinfection, and adsorption flocculation. It does not cause secondary pollution to the environment. [...] Read more.
Ferrate(VI) is a green and efficient water treatment agent for drinking and wastewater. It is widely used in water treatment because it has multi-functional uses such as oxidation, algae removal, disinfection, and adsorption flocculation. It does not cause secondary pollution to the environment. This paper compares ferrate(VI) with other water treatment agents and discusses three methods of preparing ferrate(VI). The removal, adsorption, and control of organic matter, algae, disinfection by-products, and heavy metal ions in water when ferrate(VI) was used as an oxidant, disinfectant, and coagulant were summarized. Ferrate(VI) has some advantages in removing toxic, harmful, and difficult-to-degrade substances from water. Due to the disadvantages of ferrate(VI) such as oxidation selectivity and instability, it is necessary to develop the hyphenated techniques of ferrate(VI). In this review, three hyphenated techniques of ferrate(VI) are summarized: ferrate(VI)–photocatalytic synergistic coupling, ferrate(VI)–PAA synergistic coupling, and ferrate(VI)–PMS synergistic coupling. Full article
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26 pages, 2727 KiB  
Review
A Review of Recent Advances in Detection and Treatment Technology for Perfluorinated Compounds
by Yong Wang, Jiaqi Guo, Sumita, Changjie Shi, Qijia Zhu, Cong Li and Weihai Pang
Water 2022, 14(23), 3919; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14233919 - 1 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3586
Abstract
Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are a novel type of environmental pollutant with a specific structure. PFCs have become a global concern due to their environmental persistence and biotoxicity properties. In this paper, we review the hazardous effects, detection technologies, and treatment methods of PFCs. [...] Read more.
Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are a novel type of environmental pollutant with a specific structure. PFCs have become a global concern due to their environmental persistence and biotoxicity properties. In this paper, we review the hazardous effects, detection technologies, and treatment methods of PFCs. We present the current status of PFCs pollution in water, the atmosphere, soil, and organisms. Moreover, we show that PFCs have toxic effects, such as hepatotoxicity, neurotoxicity, immunotoxicity, endocrine disruption, and reproductive and developmental toxicity. Six sample pretreatment techniques and four assays for PFCs are listed in this paper. This review focuses on the analysis of the treatment methods for PFCs, such as physical adsorption, microbial degradation, photochemical oxidation, electrochemical oxidation, acoustic oxidation, Fenton oxidation, and so on. We systematically analyze the treatment effects, removal mechanisms, and future directions of various technologies to provide support and suggestions for PFCs pollution control technologies. Full article
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29 pages, 2028 KiB  
Review
Aging Process of Microplastics in the Aquatic Environments: Aging Pathway, Characteristic Change, Compound Effect, and Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals Formation
by Cong Li, Bo Jiang, Jiaqi Guo, Chunmeng Sun, Changjie Shi, Saikai Huang, Wang Liu, Chengzhang Wu and Yunshu Zhang
Water 2022, 14(21), 3515; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14213515 - 2 Nov 2022
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 6103
Abstract
Plastic wastes are becoming one of the most serious environmental pollutants because of their high antidegradation properties and the damage they cause to human health. More seriously, plastics can become smaller in size and form microplastics (MPs), attributing to the oxidation, weathering, and [...] Read more.
Plastic wastes are becoming one of the most serious environmental pollutants because of their high antidegradation properties and the damage they cause to human health. More seriously, plastics can become smaller in size and form microplastics (MPs), attributing to the oxidation, weathering, and fragmentation processes. The influx of MPs into water bodies seriously affects the quality of the aquatic environment. Therefore, it is necessary to summarize the aging process of MPs. In this review, we first provided an overview of the definition and source of MPs. Then we analyzed the potential aging pathways of MPs in the current aquatic environment and elaborated on the changes in the physicochemical properties of MPs during the aging process (e.g., particle size, crystallinity, thermodynamic properties, and surface functional groups). In addition, the possible synergistic contamination of MPs with other pollutants in the environment is illustrated. Finally, the mechanisms of generation and toxicity of environmental persistent free radicals (EPFRs) that may be generated during the photoaging of MPs were described, and the feasibility of using photoaged MPs as photosensitizers to catalyze photoreactive degradation of organic pollutants is proposed. Overall, this review provides a comprehensive and objective evaluation of the behavior of MPs in the aquatic environment. Full article
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21 pages, 1811 KiB  
Review
Review of the Distribution and Influence of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Ballast Water
by Jiaqi Guo, Bo Jiang, Sumita, Chengzhang Wu, Yunshu Zhang and Cong Li
Water 2022, 14(21), 3501; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14213501 - 2 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2399
Abstract
The misuse of antibiotics causes antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in bacteria to be gradually enriched by environmental selection, resulting in increased tolerance and resistance in bacteria to antibiotics. Ballast water is a mobile carrier for the global transfer of bacteria and genes, thus [...] Read more.
The misuse of antibiotics causes antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in bacteria to be gradually enriched by environmental selection, resulting in increased tolerance and resistance in bacteria to antibiotics. Ballast water is a mobile carrier for the global transfer of bacteria and genes, thus posing a certain risk of ARGs spreading into the global ocean. Therefore, it is important to investigate the current status of ARGs in ballast water, as well as control the abundance of ARGs. Herein, we attempt to comprehensively summarize the distribution and abundance of ARGs in ballast water from different sea areas and analyze the influencing factors (such as physical factors, chemical factors, temperature, pH, etc.) on the distribution of ARGs. Furthermore, we seek to review the changes in ARGs after differential disinfection technology treatment in ballast water (including chlorination, ultraviolet, ozone, and free radical technology), especially the enhancing effect of subinhibitory concentrations of disinfectants on ARGs transfer. Overall, we believe this review can serve as a guide for future researchers to establish a more reasonable standard of ballast water discharge that considers the pollution of ARGs and provide new insight into the risk of vertical and horizontal ARG transfer in ballast water after disinfection. Full article
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27 pages, 1621 KiB  
Review
The Effect Review of Various Biological, Physical and Chemical Methods on the Removal of Antibiotics
by Saikai Huang, Jianping Yu, Cong Li, Qijia Zhu, Yunshu Zhang, Eric Lichtfouse and Nicolas Marmier
Water 2022, 14(19), 3138; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14193138 - 5 Oct 2022
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4671
Abstract
Antibiotics are highly effective bactericidal drugs that are widely used in human medicine, aquaculture and animal husbandry. Antibiotics enter the aquatic environment through various routes due to low metabolic levels and increased use. Not only are antibiotics inherently toxic, but the spread of [...] Read more.
Antibiotics are highly effective bactericidal drugs that are widely used in human medicine, aquaculture and animal husbandry. Antibiotics enter the aquatic environment through various routes due to low metabolic levels and increased use. Not only are antibiotics inherently toxic, but the spread of potential drug resistance introduced has been identified by the World Health Organization as one of the major threats and risks to global public health security. Therefore, how to efficiently remove antibiotics from water and eliminate the ecological safety hazards caused by antibiotics has been a hot topic in recent years. There are various research methods for decontaminating water with antibiotics. This paper reviews the research and application of various biological, physical, chemical methods and combined processes in antibiotic pollution control. Moreover, this paper describes the degradation mechanism, removal efficiency, influencing factors and technical characteristics of different antibiotics by various methods in detail. Finally, an outlook on future research in antibiotic removal is provided to help promote the development of antibiotic removal technology. Full article
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23 pages, 2902 KiB  
Review
A Review of the Treatment Process of Perfluorooctane Compounds in the Waters: Adsorption, Flocculation, and Advanced Oxidative Process
by Kai Zhang, Sumita, Cong Li, Chunmeng Sun and Nicolas Marmier
Water 2022, 14(17), 2692; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14172692 - 30 Aug 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2897
Abstract
Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are recognized as a new type of refractory organic pollutants. Due to the persistent environmental pollution, bioaccumulation, and biotoxicity of PFCs, they have received extensive attention in recent years. To deal with the environmental risks caused by PFCs, the pollution [...] Read more.
Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are recognized as a new type of refractory organic pollutants. Due to the persistent environmental pollution, bioaccumulation, and biotoxicity of PFCs, they have received extensive attention in recent years. To deal with the environmental risks caused by PFCs, the pollution and distribution of PFCs in the aquatic environment are discussed in detail, mainly for the most widely used PFCs—perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). The latest progress in the current processing technology of PFOA and PFOS is comprehensively introduced. It includes a variety of physical techniques to remove PFCs such as adsorption and flocculation. It has been confirmed that various adsorbents can play a key role in the enrichment and removal of PFCs through high specific surface area and hydrophobic interaction. In addition, traditional degradation processes are often unsatisfactory for PFCs, prompting the search for more efficient and cost-effective methods, with great progress having been made in advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) based on radical decomposition of pollutants. This review also integrates multiple advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) such as photocatalysis, electrochemical processes, ozone, the Fenton process, and ultrasound. This paper provides an overview of the various PFCs removal techniques and discusses their efficacy. It also explores future possible developments for PFCs elimination technologies for water treatment. Full article
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20 pages, 1924 KiB  
Review
Review of Advanced Oxidation Processes Based on Peracetic Acid for Organic Pollutants
by Changjie Shi, Cong Li, Yong Wang, Jiaqi Guo, Sadou Barry, Yunshu Zhang and Nicolas Marmier
Water 2022, 14(15), 2309; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152309 - 25 Jul 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4714
Abstract
In recent years, the removal of organic pollutants from water and wastewater has attracted more attention to different advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). There has been increasing interest in using peroxyacetic acid (PAA), an emerging oxidant with low or no toxic by-products, yet the [...] Read more.
In recent years, the removal of organic pollutants from water and wastewater has attracted more attention to different advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). There has been increasing interest in using peroxyacetic acid (PAA), an emerging oxidant with low or no toxic by-products, yet the promotion and application are limited by unclear activation mechanisms and complex preparation processes. This paper synthesized the related research results reported on the removal of organic pollutants by PAA-based AOPs. Based on the research of others, this paper not only introduced the preparation method and characteristics of PAA but also summarized the mechanism and reactivity of PAA activated by the free radical pathway and discussed the main influencing factors. Furthermore, the principle and application of the newly discovered methods of non-radical activation of PAA in recent years were also reviewed for the first time. Finally, the shortcomings and development of PAA-based AOPs were discussed and prospected. This review provides a reference for the development of activated PAA technology that can be practically applied to the treatment of organic pollutants in water. Full article
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