Cyanobacteria Harmful Bloom Remediation Enabling Eco-Technology for Water Reclamation

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Quality and Contamination".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2022) | Viewed by 11300

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, University of Porto, Matosinhos, Portugal
Interests: wastewater treatment; environmental science; analytical chemistry

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Environmental Sciences, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark
Interests: water treatment technology; phytotechnology; constructed wetlands; biofilm reactors; emerging contaminants; water reuse
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University of Cadi Ayyad, National Center for Studies and Research on Water and Energy (CNEREE), Marrakech, Morocco
Interests: environmental pollution; wastewater treatment; water reuse
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Toxin-producing harmful algal blooms (HABs) in freshwaters constitute a severe environmental problem. HABs are reported all over the world in many different ecosystems and are often associated with the proliferation of cyanobacteria species. Nonetheless, an increase of frequency and intensity of HABs has been observed, driven by the progressive degradation of the aquatic ecosystems and climate change.

HABs are posing serious constraints on the use of freshwater resources worldwide. The presence of cyanobacterial toxins in the water demands the application of expensive treatments to turn highly contaminated water into water for consumption. In this context, it is thus imperative to develop economic, sustainable, and effective technologies to remove this kind of contaminants and enable water reclamation for different purposes, namely, agriculture irrigation.

This Special Issue is devoted to novel (bio)remediation technologies for cleaning contaminated freshwaters affected by HABs based on their cost-effectiveness, environmental character, and technical applicability. Principles of design and operation of these technologies, their efficiency, and the fate of the biomass and toxins are of particular interest. This Special Issue aims at including both fundamental research carried out on nature-based solutions for cyanotoxins and harmful cyanobacteria but also applied research showing piloting and full-scale systems.

Dr. Marisa Almeida
Dr. Alexandre M. Campos
Dr. Pedro N. Carvalho
Prof. Dr. Laila Mandi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • harmful cyanobacteria
  • harmful algal blooms (HABs)
  • cyanotoxins
  • water reclamation
  • irrigation/agriculture
  • bioremediation
  • nature-based solutions
  • phytoremediation
  • environmentally friendly technologies

Published Papers (3 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

18 pages, 2336 KiB  
Article
Estimating the Importance of Hydrologic Conditions on Nutrient Retention and Plant Richness in a Wetlaculture Mesocosm Experiment in a Former Lake Erie Basin Swamp
by Bingbing Jiang, William J. Mitsch and Chris Lenhart
Water 2021, 13(18), 2509; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13182509 - 13 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2720
Abstract
The western basin of Lake Erie, the shallowest of the Laurentian Great Lakes in North America, is now plagued by harmful algal blooms annually due to nutrient discharges primarily from its basin. Water quality was impacted so significantly by toxic cyanobacteria in 2014 [...] Read more.
The western basin of Lake Erie, the shallowest of the Laurentian Great Lakes in North America, is now plagued by harmful algal blooms annually due to nutrient discharges primarily from its basin. Water quality was impacted so significantly by toxic cyanobacteria in 2014 that the city of Toledo’s water supply was shut off, affecting hundreds of thousands of residents. A new agricultural land management approach, ‘wetlaculture (=wetland + agriculture)’, has a goal of reducing the need for fertilizer applications while preventing fluxes of nutrients to downstream aquatic ecosystems. A wetlaculture mesocosm experiment was set up on agricultural land near Defiance, Ohio, on the northwestern edge of the former ‘Great Black Swamp’. The mesocosms were randomly assigned to four hydrologic treatments involving two water depths (no standing water and ~10-cm of standing water) and two hydraulic loading rates (10 and 30 cm week−1). Nearby agricultural ditch water was pumped to provide weekly hydraulic loading rates to the mesocosms. During the two-year period, the net mass retention of phosphorus from the water was estimated to have averaged 1.0 g P m−2 in the wetland mesocosms with a higher hydraulic loading rate, while the highest estimated net nitrogen mass retention (average 22 g N m−2) was shown in the wetland mesocosms with 10 cm of standing water and higher hydraulic loading rate. Our finding suggests that hydrologic conditions, especially water level, contribute directly and indirectly to nutrient retention, partially through the quick response of the wetland vegetation community. This study provides valuable information for scaling up to restore significant areas of wetlaculture/wetlands in the former Great Black Swamp, strategically focused on reducing the nutrient loading to western Lake Erie from the Maumee River Basin. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2212 KiB  
Article
First Report on Cyanotoxin (MC-LR) Removal from Surface Water by Multi-Soil-Layering (MSL) Eco-Technology: Preliminary Results
by Roseline Prisca Aba, Richard Mugani, Abdessamad Hejjaj, Nelly Brugerolle de Fraissinette, Brahim Oudra, Naaila Ouazzani, Alexandre Campos, Vitor Vasconcelos, Pedro N. Carvalho and Laila Mandi
Water 2021, 13(10), 1403; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101403 - 18 May 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3875
Abstract
Cyanobacteria blooms occur frequently in freshwaters around the world. Some can produce and release toxic compounds called cyanotoxins, which represent a danger to both the environment and human health. Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is the most toxic variant reported all over the world. Conventional water [...] Read more.
Cyanobacteria blooms occur frequently in freshwaters around the world. Some can produce and release toxic compounds called cyanotoxins, which represent a danger to both the environment and human health. Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is the most toxic variant reported all over the world. Conventional water treatment methods are expensive and require specialized personnel and equipment. Recently, a multi-soil-layering (MSL) system, a natural and low-cost technology, has been introduced as an attractive cost-effective, and environmentally friendly technology that is likely to be an alternative to conventional wastewater treatment methods. This study aims to evaluate, for the first time, the efficiency of MSL eco-technology to remove MC-LR on a laboratory scale using local materials. To this end, an MSL pilot plant was designed to treat distilled water contaminated with MC-LR. The pilot was composed of an alternation of permeable layers (pozzolan) and soil mixture layers (local sandy soil, sawdust, charcoal, and metallic iron on a dry weight ratio of 70, 10, 10, and 10%, respectively) arranged in a brick-layer-like pattern. MSL pilot was continuously fed with synthetic water containing distilled water contaminated with increasing concentrations of MC-LR (0.18–10 µg/L) at a hydraulic loading rate (HLR) of 200 L m−2 day−1. The early results showed MC-LR removal of above 99%. Based on these preliminary results, the multi-soil-layering eco-technology could be considered as a promising solution to treat water contaminated by MC-LR in order to produce quality water for irrigation or recreational activities. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

21 pages, 9301 KiB  
Review
Multi-Soil-Layering Technology: A New Approach to Remove Microcystis aeruginosa and Microcystins from Water
by Richard Mugani, Roseline Prisca Aba, Abdessamad Hejjaj, Fatima El Khalloufi, Naaila Ouazzani, C. Marisa R. Almeida, Pedro N. Carvalho, Vitor Vasconcelos, Alexandre Campos, Laila Mandi and Brahim Oudra
Water 2022, 14(5), 686; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14050686 - 22 Feb 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3175
Abstract
Eutrophication of surface waters caused by toxic cyanobacteria such as Microcystis aeruginosa leads to the release of secondary metabolites called Microcystins (MCs), which are heptapeptides with adverse effects on soil microbiota, plants, animals, and human health. Therefore, to avoid succumbing to the negative [...] Read more.
Eutrophication of surface waters caused by toxic cyanobacteria such as Microcystis aeruginosa leads to the release of secondary metabolites called Microcystins (MCs), which are heptapeptides with adverse effects on soil microbiota, plants, animals, and human health. Therefore, to avoid succumbing to the negative effects of these cyanotoxins, various remediation approaches have been considered. These techniques involve expensive physico-chemical processes because of the specialized equipment and facilities required. Thus, implementing eco-technologies capable of handling this problem has become necessary. Indeed, multi-soil-layering (MSL) technology can essentially meet this requirement. This system requires little space, needs simple maintenance, and has energy-free operation and high durability (20 years). The performance of the system is such that it can remove 1.16 to 4.47 log10 units of fecal contamination from the water, 98% of suspended solids (SS), 92% of biological oxygen demand (BOD), 98% of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 92% of total nitrogen (TN), and 100% of total phosphorus (TP). The only reported use of the system to remove cyanotoxins has shown a 99% removal rate of MC-LR. However, the mechanisms involved in removing this toxin from the water are not fully understood. This paper proposes reviewing the principal methods employed in conventional water treatment and other technologies to eliminate MCs from the water. We also describe the principles of operation of MSL systems and compare the performance of this technology with others, highlighting some advantages of this technology in removing MCs. Overall, the combination of multiple processes (physico-chemical and biological) makes MSL technology a good choice of cyanobacterial contamination treatment system that is applicable in real-life conditions, especially in rural areas. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop