New Insights into Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Wastewater Treatment and Reuse".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2023) | Viewed by 11509

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. National Center for Studies and Research on Water and Energy, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakech 40000, Morocco
2. Laboratory of Water, Biodiversity and Climate Change, Faculty of Sciences Semlalia, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakech 40000, Morocco
Interests: wastewater treatment technologies; nature-based solutions; phytoremediation; phycoremediation; water pollution control; water reuse; water management
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Guest Editor
School of Science and Technology, Hellenic Open University, 26335 Patras, Greece
Interests: water reuse; environmental geochemistry; soil pollution; heavy metals; microplastics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Laboratory of Water, Biodiversity and Climate Change, Faculty of Sciences Semlalia, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakech 40000, Morocco
Interests: wastewater treatment and reuse; lagooning; infiltration percolation; activated sludge; constructed wetland; nutrients; heavy metals; pollution impact on soil and cultures

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nowadays, the water crisis is becoming a major and growing concern around the world. The situation is expected to worsen as climate change and human activities increase the frequency, magnitude, and impact of droughts. To overcome this major challenge, nonconventional water resources, such as reclaimed wastewater, have gained an increasing role in the planning and development of alternative water supplies. A high potential of wastewater recycling and reuse is available nowadays, and can be applied to irrigation (agriculture, landscape, and golf courses), industrial use, ground water recharge, aquaculture, drinking water use, etc. Hence, the reclamation and reuse of wastewater for different purposes represents an attractive option to cope with water scarcity and meeting the challenge of the fresh water needs, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Thus, nonconventional water use may provide a sustainable solution to address a critical water shortage.

The goal of this Special Issue is to provide a platform for scientists, academics, and professionals all over the world to promote, share knowledge on the latest advances in wastewater reclamation and reuse, and discuss new insights and developments in the area.

We are pleased to invite researchers and authors to submit original research and review articles that explore new insights into wastewater reclamation and reuse. Research areas may include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Municipal wastewater reclamation and reuse;
  • Industrial wastewater reclamation and reuse;
  • Cases studies on wastewater reclamation and reuse;
  • Advanced technologies;
  • Nature-based solutions;
  • Applications of AI to wastewater reclamation and reuse;
  • Challenges for water reclamation and reuse;
  • Microplastics in wastewater and environment;
  • Impact on soil and plants;
  • Regulations and standards;  
  • Quality issues;
  • Risk assessments;
  • Economic aspects of wastewater reclamation and reuse.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Prof. Dr. Laila Mandi
Prof. Dr. Ioannis K. Kalavrouziotis
Prof. Dr. Naaila Ouazzani
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • municipal wastewater reclamation and reuse
  • industrial wastewater reclamation and reuse
  • cases studies on wastewater reclamation and reuse
  • advanced technologies
  • nature-based solutions
  • applications of AI to wastewater reclamation and reuse
  • challenges for water reclamation and reuse
  • microplastics in wastewater and environment
  • impact on soil and plants
  • regulations and standards
  • quality issues
  • risk assessments
  • economic aspects of wastewater reclamation and reuse

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 254 KiB  
Article
A Study on the Efficiency of Green Technology Innovation in Listed Chinese Water Environment Treatment Companies
by Ying Wang, Yahan Shi, Xiaofeng Xu and Yunjie Zhu
Water 2024, 16(3), 510; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16030510 - 05 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 888
Abstract
With the continuous advancement of the economy, the issues of resource scarcity and environmental damage are becoming increasingly severe. For example, in terms of water resources, the problems of environmental pollution and ecological imbalance in the water caused by industrial and agricultural wastewater [...] Read more.
With the continuous advancement of the economy, the issues of resource scarcity and environmental damage are becoming increasingly severe. For example, in terms of water resources, the problems of environmental pollution and ecological imbalance in the water caused by industrial and agricultural wastewater are becoming more serious. In order to reduce water pollution, protect water resources, promote ecological balance, and reduce environmental risks, it is necessary to strengthen water environment management. This study uses the Malmquist DEA model to conduct a study on the green technology innovation efficiency (GTIE) of 24 water environment governance companies from 2019 to 2022. Corporate Research & Development investment and employee compensation are used as the input indicators, while the number of color patents obtained and operating income are employed as the output indicators. The evaluation criteria include pure technical efficiency, comprehensive technical efficiency, scale efficiency, and total factor productivity. The results show that there is significant room for improvement in the GTIE of the listed Chinese water environment governance enterprises, and there are considerable differences among different enterprises. The GTIE is significantly influenced by technological progress, the enterprise size, and the equity ratio. Therefore, water environment management enterprises should enhance their efforts in technological research and development and talent training, optimize resource allocation, improve the efficiency of green technology innovation, and effectively fulfill their social responsibilities. These measures will promote the efficient utilization of ecological water, the restoration of the water environment, and the establishment of a clean ecological environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse)
33 pages, 1056 KiB  
Article
The Impact of the Elemental Interactions on Soil Fertility and Toxicity in the Presence of Wastewater and Biosolids: A Quantitative Evaluation
by Prodromos H. Koukoulakis, Panos Kanatas, Spyridon S. Kyritsis, Georgia Ntzala and Ioannis K. Kalavrouziotis
Water 2023, 15(21), 3743; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15213743 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 649
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted in Mesologgi, Greece, for the study of the elemental contribution to the soil under the following treatments in four replications i.e.,: a—Wastewater (TMWW), b—Biosolid (BSD), c—(TMWW + BSD) and d—CONTROL (fresh irrigation water). Similarly, the data of a [...] Read more.
A field experiment was conducted in Mesologgi, Greece, for the study of the elemental contribution to the soil under the following treatments in four replications i.e.,: a—Wastewater (TMWW), b—Biosolid (BSD), c—(TMWW + BSD) and d—CONTROL (fresh irrigation water). Similarly, the data of a greenhouse experiment conducted in four replications in Agrinion, under the effect of wastewater and biosolids was also taken into account for reasons of comparison. The soil analytical data of these two experiments were chosen to study the elemental interactions under two different experimental conditions The actual scope was the use of the elemental interactions as a tool for the evaluation of their contribution in terms of plant nutrients, and heavy metals to soil fertility and of heavy metals to soil toxicity. Based on the results of elemental contributions obtained for both of the above experimental soils, the key role of elemental interactions as a tool in evaluating the contributed heavy metals, and essential nutrients, as well as in producing quantitative changes in the physical and chemical properties of soil (pH, organic matter, calcium carbonate, and electrical conductivity), was also, studied. According to the obtained results, it was shown that the elemental interactions have shown approximately the same quantitative trend between some of the results obtained, differing in some others, showing higher concentrations. In other words, it was shown that the elemental interactions could be used as an effective tool for the quantitative evaluation of the elemental interactions’ contribution in terms of nutrients to soil fertility, and of heavy metals to soil toxicity, under the reuse of wastewater and biosolids, as well as in terms of changes of the soil physical and chemical properties. However, due to the complex nature of this subject, more detailed research must be conducted on the elemental contributions, so that the plant nutrients, or the heavy metals, eventually be managed effectively to the benefit of the agricultural economy and environmental quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse)
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23 pages, 6572 KiB  
Article
Artificial Intelligence and Wastewater Treatment: A Global Scientific Perspective through Text Mining
by Abdelhafid El Alaoui El Fels, Laila Mandi, Aya Kammoun, Naaila Ouazzani, Olivier Monga and Moulay Lhassan Hbid
Water 2023, 15(19), 3487; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15193487 - 05 Oct 2023
Viewed by 3457
Abstract
The concept of using wastewater as a substitute for limited water resources and environmental protection has enabled this sector to make major technological advancements and, as a result, has given us an abundance of physical data, including chemical, biological, and microbiological information. It [...] Read more.
The concept of using wastewater as a substitute for limited water resources and environmental protection has enabled this sector to make major technological advancements and, as a result, has given us an abundance of physical data, including chemical, biological, and microbiological information. It is easier to comprehend wastewater treatment systems after studying this data. In order to achieve this, a number of studies use machine learning (ML) algorithms as a proactive approach to solving issues and modeling the functionalities of these processing systems while utilizing the experimental data gathered. The goal of this article is to use textual analysis techniques to extract the most popular machine learning models from scientific documents in the “Web of Science” database and analyze their relevance and historical development. This will help provide a general overview and global scientific follow-up of publications dealing with the application of artificial intelligence (AI) to overcome the challenges faced in wastewater treatment technologies. The findings suggest that developed countries are the major publishers of articles on this research topic, and an analysis of the publication trend reveals an exponential rise in numbers, reflecting the scientific community’s interest in the subject. As well, the results indicate that supervised learning is popular among researchers, with the Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Random Forest (RF), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Linear Regression (LR), Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), Decision Tree (DT), and Gradient Boosting (GB) being the machine learning models most frequently employed in the wastewater treatment domain. Research on optimization methods reveals that the most well-known method for calibrating models is genetic algorithms (GA). Finally, machine learning benefits wastewater treatment by enhancing data analysis accuracy and efficiency. Yet challenges arise as model training demands ample, high-quality data. Moreover, the limited interpretability of machine learning models complicates comprehension of the underlying mechanisms and decisions in wastewater treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse)
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18 pages, 2234 KiB  
Article
Effect of Alternating Well Water with Treated Wastewater Irrigation on Soil and Koroneiki Olive Trees
by Jouhayna Fdil, Xiaoliang Zhou, Abdelaali Ahmali, Abdelhafid El Alaoui El Fels, Laila Mandi and Naaila Ouazzani
Water 2023, 15(16), 2988; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15162988 - 18 Aug 2023
Viewed by 949
Abstract
The use of treated wastewater (TWW) in irrigation has a positive impact by bringing fertilizers and organics. However, increases in the soil’s sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) creates a barrier to long-term TWW irrigation. Alternating well water with wastewater irrigation is one practical solution [...] Read more.
The use of treated wastewater (TWW) in irrigation has a positive impact by bringing fertilizers and organics. However, increases in the soil’s sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) creates a barrier to long-term TWW irrigation. Alternating well water with wastewater irrigation is one practical solution that could be used to address the problem. This work aims to study the effect of alternating two years of well water with two years of treated wastewater irrigation on the soil characteristics of a Koroneiki olive tree mesocosm. Urban and agri-food wastewater treated using various technologies, such as lagooning, activated sludge, multi-soil-layering, and constructed wetlands, were used for irrigation. The results showed that an increase in salinity (SAR and ESP) in soil and olive tree leaves are the main negative effects of continuous irrigation with TWW on soil and tree performance. Several chemical and biochemical parameters, such as SAR and Na+ concentration, demonstrated that alternating well water with treated wastewater irrigation can reverse these negative effects. This recovery effect occurs in a relatively short period of time, implying that such a management practice is viable. However, long-term well water application reduces soil fertility due to the leaching of organics and exchangeable ions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse)
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Review

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32 pages, 6655 KiB  
Review
Multi-Soil-Layering, the Emerging Technology for Wastewater Treatment: Review, Bibliometric Analysis, and Future Directions
by Sofyan Sbahi, Laila Mandi, Tsugiyuki Masunaga, Naaila Ouazzani and Abdessamad Hejjaj
Water 2022, 14(22), 3653; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14223653 - 13 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4021
Abstract
Due to its unique structure and excellent purification efficiency (e.g., 98% for organic matter and between 94 and 100% for nutrients), multi-soil-layering (MSL) has emerged as an efficient eco-friendly solution for wastewater treatment and environmental protection. Through infiltration-percolation, this soil-based technology allows pollutants [...] Read more.
Due to its unique structure and excellent purification efficiency (e.g., 98% for organic matter and between 94 and 100% for nutrients), multi-soil-layering (MSL) has emerged as an efficient eco-friendly solution for wastewater treatment and environmental protection. Through infiltration-percolation, this soil-based technology allows pollutants to move from the MSL upper layers to the outlet while maintaining direct contact with its media, which helps in their removal via a variety of physical and biochemical mechanisms. This paper attempts to comprehensively evaluate the application of MSL technology and investigate its progress and efficacy since its emergence. Thus, it will attempt via a bibliometric analysis using the Web of Science database (from 1993 to 1 June 2022) related to MSL technology, to give a clear picture of the number of publications (70 studies), the most active academics, and countries (China with 27 studies), as well as collaborations and related topics. Furthermore, through hybrid combinations, pollutant removal processes, MSL effective media, and the key efficiency parameters, this paper review will seek to provide an overview of research that has developed and examined MSL since its inception. On the other hand, the current review will evaluate the modeling approaches used to explore MSL behavior in terms of pollutant removal and simulation of its performance (R2 > 90%). However, despite the increase in MSL publications in the past years (e.g., 13 studies in 2021), many studies are still needed to fill the knowledge gaps and urging challenges regarding this emerging technology. Thus, recommendations on improving the stability and sustainability of MSLs are highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse)
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