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Special Issue "GIS-Based Hydrology and Water Quality Modeling"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 January 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Kyoung Jae Lim

Regional Infrastructure Engineering, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon 24341, Korea
Website 1 | Website 2 | E-Mail
Phone: +82-33-250-6468
Interests: hydrology; water quality; soil erosion; GIS; decision support system
Guest Editor
Prof. Younghun Jung

Construction and Disaster Prevention Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Sangju, Gyeongbuk 37224, Korea
E-Mail
Phone: +82 54 530 1253
Interests: terrain analysis; hydrologic modeling; flood inundation; remote sensing; GIS; drought; soil loss; uncertainty analysis
Guest Editor
Dr. Jonggun Kim

Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon 24341, Korea
E-Mail
Phone: +82 33 241 6468
Interests: vadose zone hydrology; land surface modeling; hydrologic and water quality modeling (watershed scale flow and transport modeling); remote sensing (RS); Geographic Information System (GIS)

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Hydrologic and water quality models have been developed across the world to understand, forecast, and manage water resources. These are valuable tools to fill the gaps in understanding water flow and solute transport processes. Accurate estimation of the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of water resources are required to manage the optimum use of water resources in a sustainable manner. Recently, with advances in computer technology and computational capabilities, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) technologies have been widely used in hydrologic/water quality modeling areas, and, thus, in related decision-making contexts. GIS has been used to efficiently parameterize input data of various hydrologic and water quality models to represent spatial and temporal characteristic of factors affecting hydrologic components (surface, subsurface, groundwater, etc.) and pollutant generation (nonpoint pollution) and transport with water via surface or infiltration, thus flowing into streams. The use of satellites for the management of water resources can also play a significant role in providing valuable information and filling in the gaps between real conditions and hydrologic modeling. Various satellites have been developed and operated to provide necessary data that can make up for the lack of on-the-ground monitoring of water resources at various scales. The use of GIS and RS have increased in hydrological modeling and water resources system analysis (ET, soil moisture, runoff, groundwater, soil erosion, etc.) in the last decade. In this context, there is a growing need to improve the current GIS/RS technologies and obtain a better understanding of its use in hydrology. Furthermore, in recent years Machine-Learning/Deep-Learning applications have rapidly become the state-of-the-art, leading to enhanced performance in various hydrological modeling applications that can be integrated with GIS and hydrological modeling.

Therefore, the aim of this Special Issue is to foster advances in hydrologic and water quality modeling based on state-of-the-art GIS/RS technologies. In this Special Issue on “GIS/RS-Based Hydrology and Water Quality Modeling”, we welcome your contributions on GIS/RS, hydrology and non-point pollution modeling, integration of GIS and models, Machine-Learning/Deep-Learning application in GIS-based modeling, and decision support systems.

Prof. Kyoung Jae Lim
Prof. Younghun Jung
Dr. Jonggun Kim
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • GIS based rainfall-runoff modeling
  • RS based soil moisture modeling
  • Coupling of surface, subsurface, and groundwater modeling
  • Soil erosion modeling
  • Nonpoint pollution modeling
  • Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis in GIS-based modeling
  • Geo-statistical modeling in hydrology
  • GIS and RS applications in hydrology
  • Decision support systems
  • Machine-Learning and Deep-Learning applications in hydrology

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Contribution of Internal Nutrients Loading on the Water Quality of a Reservoir
Water 2019, 11(7), 1409; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071409
Received: 20 May 2019 / Revised: 5 July 2019 / Accepted: 5 July 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
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Abstract
Sediment plays an important role in the water quality of a lake by acting as both a nutrient source and sink. The amount of phosphorus and nitrogen in the water depends on the internal load from the sediment as well as the external [...] Read more.
Sediment plays an important role in the water quality of a lake by acting as both a nutrient source and sink. The amount of phosphorus and nitrogen in the water depends on the internal load from the sediment as well as the external load. To estimate the effects of sediment load on the water quality of a reservoir, we applied a three-dimensional hydrodynamic and transport model based on the benthic chamber experimental results at Euiam Lake, South Korea. As shown in the sensitivity analysis results, the eutrophication period could be significantly extended by a change of phosphorus flux rates from the sediments. The increased phosphorus flux from the sediments intensifies the algal growth of Euiam Lake, which could cause serious algal bloom during spring and fall. This study provides information on nutrient concentrations in the sediment of Euiam Lake, verifies the role of the sediment as a source or sink of nutrients, and evaluates the effect of sediment release of nutrients and contaminants on water quality. This research is a useful tool in determining the effects of internal load in lakes and establishing the operation guideline for sediment management in order to maintain feasible water quality for beneficial use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS-Based Hydrology and Water Quality Modeling)
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Open AccessArticle
A Comparison Study of Runoff Characteristics of Non-Point Source Pollution from Three Watersheds in South Korea
Water 2019, 11(5), 966; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11050966
Received: 16 April 2019 / Revised: 2 May 2019 / Accepted: 4 May 2019 / Published: 8 May 2019
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Abstract
Three watersheds in Korea (Dochoncheon, Gongjicheon, Seolseongcheon) with different land cover characteristics were selected for non-point source pollution monitoring. Event mean concentration (EMC) was calculated, and runoff characteristics were compared through first-flushing and statistical analyses. The mean of the water quality parameters was [...] Read more.
Three watersheds in Korea (Dochoncheon, Gongjicheon, Seolseongcheon) with different land cover characteristics were selected for non-point source pollution monitoring. Event mean concentration (EMC) was calculated, and runoff characteristics were compared through first-flushing and statistical analyses. The mean of the water quality parameters was the highest in Seolseongcheon during dry days among the three watersheds. EMCs of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total nitrogen (TN) were higher in Dochoncheon and Gongjicheon during rainy days, respectively. The upper Seolseongchun watershed showed overall greater values of chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SS), total organic carbon (TOC), and total phosphorus (TP). First-flush analyses indicated that SS had the strongest and TN had the weakest effects on the first flush. BOD was the highest in Dochoncheon (urban watershed) and increased with increased number of antecedent dry days. Rainfall intensity appeared to affect SS runoff strongly in Gongjicheon and Seolseongcheon. COD showed strong correlation with SS and TOC in all watersheds, and organic matter (COD and TOC) demonstrated high factor loads during dry and rainy days. Thus, organic matter–related factors were classified as the major factors in pollutant loads. TP and TN were separately classified during dry days in Gongjicheon and Seolseongcheon, whereas these were the secondary factors during rainfall when the influence of non-point pollution was substantial. Cluster analyses showed that the monitoring sites in Dochoncheon and Gongjicheon watersheds were closer than Seolseongcheon. As a result of the comparison of non-point source pollution runoff in the three watersheds, it was difficult to explain the non-point source pollution runoff by specific characteristics such as land cover. For science-based management of non-point pollution, it is necessary to obtain additional survey data considering the climatic, geographical and major industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS-Based Hydrology and Water Quality Modeling)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Effect of Reduced Flow on Downstream Water Systems Due to the Kumgangsan Dam under Dry Conditions
Water 2019, 11(4), 739; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040739
Received: 10 December 2018 / Revised: 5 April 2019 / Accepted: 6 April 2019 / Published: 9 April 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4844 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Water resource disputes for Transboundary Rivers are frequent and critical issues among countries. The Kumgangsan Dam was constructed (in North Korea) in the Transboundary River (North Han river) that affects the water resources downstream (in South Korea) of the dam. The amount of [...] Read more.
Water resource disputes for Transboundary Rivers are frequent and critical issues among countries. The Kumgangsan Dam was constructed (in North Korea) in the Transboundary River (North Han river) that affects the water resources downstream (in South Korea) of the dam. The amount of water resource (e.g., streamflow, discharge) downstream of the Kumgangsan dam has decreased after the dam construction which might cause decreased hydroelectric power and water pollution in the downstream dams, especially during the dry season. Thus, this study analyzed the changes in the inflow into the Euiam Lake (North Han River) by the construction of the Kumgangsan Dam through hydrological modeling and examined the discharge of Chuncheon Dam (inflow into Euiam Lake) considering the flow control in the Kumgangsan Dam under the dry condition scenario. In addition, the changes of base flow during different seasons were analyzed because the majority of streamflow is contributed by the base flow during dry and drought seasons. As shown in the results, it was found that the discharge from the Kumgangsan Dam has a wide effect on the downstream dams located in South Korea. The inflow of downstream dams was significantly influenced by the discharge of the upstream dam, and the base flow was also affected by the decreased discharge of dams. Based on these findings, upstream dam managements should be carefully considered to maintain the water resource and aquatic ecosystem for the downstream dam watershed. Furthermore, the results of this study can be used as the preliminary information when discussing the problems of water allocation and flood prevention with North Korea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS-Based Hydrology and Water Quality Modeling)
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Open AccessArticle
Quantification of Recharge and Runoff from Rainfall Using New GIS Tool: Example of the Gaza Strip Aquifer
Water 2019, 11(1), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11010084
Received: 18 November 2018 / Revised: 21 December 2018 / Accepted: 27 December 2018 / Published: 5 January 2019
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Abstract
The Gaza Strip forms a transition zone between the semi-humid coastal zone in the north, the semi-arid zone in the east, and the Sinai desert in the south. Groundwater is the only water source for 1.94 million inhabitants, where the only fresh replenishment [...] Read more.
The Gaza Strip forms a transition zone between the semi-humid coastal zone in the north, the semi-arid zone in the east, and the Sinai desert in the south. Groundwater is the only water source for 1.94 million inhabitants, where the only fresh replenishment water for the aquifer comes from rainfall. This study focuses on testing a newly developed GIS tool to estimate the spatial and temporal distribution of runoff and recharge from rainfall. The estimation of surface runoff was made using the Soil Conservation Services Curve Number Method, while groundwater recharge was estimated using Thornthwaite and Mather’s Soil Moisture Balance approach. The new tool was applied to the Gaza aquifer for the year 1935 and for the period from 1973 to 2016. A comparison was made between the results obtained with the developed GIS tool and the frequently used Thiessen polygon method for rainfall distribution. Runoff and recharge were estimated for the year 1935 (prior to development) to compare with the current developed conditions. It was found that the built-up and sand dune areas stand in an inverse relationship, where the former is replacing the latter (built-up area expanded from 30.1 km2 in 1982 to 92.1 km2 in 2010). Recharge takes place in the sand dune area, whereas runoff increases in the built-up area. Due to development, runoff almost tripled from 9 million m3 in 1982 to 22.9 million m3 in 2010, while groundwater recharge was reduced from 27.3 million m3 in 1982 to 23 million m3 in 2010, even though the rainfall increased between 1982 and 2010 by 11%. Comparison between the newly developed GIS tool and the Thiessen polygon-based estimation shows that the former leads to higher values of runoff and recharge for dry years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS-Based Hydrology and Water Quality Modeling)
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Open AccessArticle
Sensitivity Analysis to Investigate the Reliability of the Grid-Based Rainfall-Runoff Model
Water 2018, 10(12), 1839; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10121839
Received: 9 September 2018 / Revised: 5 December 2018 / Accepted: 10 December 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
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Abstract
This study aimed to assess the suitability of the parameters of a physically based, distributed, grid-based rainfall-runoff model. We analyzed parameter sensitivity with a dataset of eight rainfall events that occurred in two catchments of South Korea, using the Sobol’ method. Parameters identified [...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess the suitability of the parameters of a physically based, distributed, grid-based rainfall-runoff model. We analyzed parameter sensitivity with a dataset of eight rainfall events that occurred in two catchments of South Korea, using the Sobol’ method. Parameters identified as sensitive responded adequately to the scale of the rainfall events and the objective functions employed. Parameter sensitivity varied depending on rainfall scale, even in the same catchment. Interestingly, for a rainfall event causing considerable runoff, parameters related to initial soil saturation and soil water movement played a significant role in low flow calculation and high flow calculation, respectively. The larger and steeper catchment exhibited a greater difference in parameter sensitivity between rainfall events. Finally, we found that setting an incorrect parameter range that is physically impossible can have a large impact on runoff simulation, leading to substantial uncertainty in the simulation results. The proposed analysis method and the results from our study can help researchers using a distributed rainfall-runoff model produce more reliable analysis results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS-Based Hydrology and Water Quality Modeling)
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Open AccessArticle
Accounting for the Spatio-Temporal Variability of Pollutant Processes in Stormwater TSS Modeling Based on Stochastic Approaches
Water 2018, 10(12), 1773; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10121773
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 26 November 2018 / Accepted: 29 November 2018 / Published: 3 December 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3198 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Stormwater quality modeling remains one of the most challenging issues in urban hydrology today. The processes involved in contaminant generation and transport are very complex, with many associated uncertainties, including uncertainty arising from process variability. In this study, the spatio-temporal variability of build-up/wash-off [...] Read more.
Stormwater quality modeling remains one of the most challenging issues in urban hydrology today. The processes involved in contaminant generation and transport are very complex, with many associated uncertainties, including uncertainty arising from process variability. In this study, the spatio-temporal variability of build-up/wash-off processes in a heterogeneous urban catchment within the Parisian region is assessed based on three stochastic modeling approaches integrated into the physically based distributed hydrological model, the Urban Runoff Branching Structure (URBS) model. Results demonstrate that accounting for process variability at the scale of a hydrological element is important for analyzing the contamination recorded at the catchment outlet. The intra-event dynamics of total suspended solids (TSS) were most accurately selected for the stochastic exponential SWMM model, as this model succeeded not only in simulating the general trend of TSS concentrations fluctuations but also in replicating multiple peaks observed in pollutographs. The advantage of this approach is that it captures the stochastic nature of the processes with minimal prior knowledge and without extensive calibration, though further enhancement is necessary for it to become a useful tool to support decision making. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS-Based Hydrology and Water Quality Modeling)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Modeling Summer Hypoxia Spatial Distribution and Fish Habitat Volume in Artificial Estuarine Waterway
Water 2018, 10(11), 1695; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111695
Received: 27 September 2018 / Revised: 4 November 2018 / Accepted: 16 November 2018 / Published: 20 November 2018
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Abstract
This study analyzes the dissolved oxygen (DO) depletion or hypoxia formation affecting the ecological vulnerability of Gyeongin-Ara Waterway (GAW), an artificial estuarine waterway. The physical, chemical, and biochemical factors affecting the summer hypoxia dynamics and distribution are simulated and the habitat volumes of [...] Read more.
This study analyzes the dissolved oxygen (DO) depletion or hypoxia formation affecting the ecological vulnerability of Gyeongin-Ara Waterway (GAW), an artificial estuarine waterway. The physical, chemical, and biochemical factors affecting the summer hypoxia dynamics and distribution are simulated and the habitat volumes of major fish species are calculated. CE-QUAL-W2, a two-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model, is applied for the simulation. Comparison with observation reveals that the salinity stratification, vertical DO gradient, and summer hypoxia characteristics are realistically reproduced by the model. Comprehensive analysis of the spatial distributions of the residence time, salinity, and DO concentration reveal that the residence time is longest at the bottom of a freshwater inflow zone. Accordingly, residence time is identified as the physical factor having the greatest influence on hypoxia. It is also clear that a hypoxic water mass diffuses towards the entire waterway during neap tides and summer, when the seawater inflow decreases. Based on the modeling results, the DO depletion drivers are identified and the hypoxic zone formation and distribution are sufficiently explained. Finally, fish habitat volumes are calculated. In particular, the survival habitat volume of Mugil cephalus is found to decrease by 32–34% as a result of hypoxia from July to August. The model employed in this study could be utilized to establish an operational plan for the waterway, which would increase fish habitat volumes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS-Based Hydrology and Water Quality Modeling)
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Open AccessArticle
Preliminary Study of Computational Time Steps in a Physically Based Distributed Rainfall–Runoff Model
Water 2018, 10(9), 1269; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10091269
Received: 3 September 2018 / Revised: 13 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3060 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The choice of the computational time step (dt) value and the method for setting dt can have a bearing on the accuracy and performance of a simulation, and this effect has not been comprehensively researched across different simulation conditions. In this [...] Read more.
The choice of the computational time step (dt) value and the method for setting dt can have a bearing on the accuracy and performance of a simulation, and this effect has not been comprehensively researched across different simulation conditions. In this study, the effects of the fixed time step (FTS) method and the automatic time step (ATS) method on the simulated runoff of a distributed rainfall–runoff model were compared. The results revealed that the ATS method had less peak flow variability than the FTS method for the virtual catchment. In the FTS method, the difference in time step had more impact on the runoff simulation results than the other factors such as differences in the amount of rainfall, the density of the stream network, or the spatial resolution of the input data. Different optimal parameter values according to the computational time step were found when FTS and ATS were used in a real catchment, and the changes in the optimal parameter values were smaller in ATS than in FTS. The results of our analyses can help to yield reliable runoff simulation results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS-Based Hydrology and Water Quality Modeling)
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Open AccessArticle
Improving Reservoir Operation Criteria to Stabilize Water Supplies in a Multipurpose Dam: Focused on Nakdong River Basin in Korea
Water 2018, 10(9), 1236; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10091236
Received: 6 August 2018 / Revised: 27 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
PDF Full-text (1569 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently, torrential rain and drought have occurred in close temporal proximity and for similar durations due to changes in the spatiotemporal patterns of rainfall owing to climate change. In particular, when a drought occurs, it tends to be prolonged, making it necessary to [...] Read more.
Recently, torrential rain and drought have occurred in close temporal proximity and for similar durations due to changes in the spatiotemporal patterns of rainfall owing to climate change. In particular, when a drought occurs, it tends to be prolonged, making it necessary to improve the operation of multipurpose dams that not only control flooding but also serve as water supplies. In this study, standard water volume lines and action plans by response stage were improved so that water could be stored in advance of a drought instead of reservoir operation criteria set based on data from the past. The minimum water demand by use (domestic water, industrial water, and agricultural water) was also calculated. The improved reservoir operation criteria were applied to multipurpose dams in the Nakdong River Basin, and their effects were analyzed by calculating additionally secured water volumes. In the future, in case of lowered water volumes in multipurpose dams owing to a drought, the application of these improved reservoir operation criteria is expected to contribute to water supply stability by delaying entry into the drought stage and minimizing the damages caused by limited water supplies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS-Based Hydrology and Water Quality Modeling)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Applicability of a Spatially Semi-Distributed Hydrological Model for Watershed Scale Runoff Estimation in Northwest Ethiopia
Water 2018, 10(7), 923; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070923
Received: 11 June 2018 / Revised: 1 July 2018 / Accepted: 9 July 2018 / Published: 12 July 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2722 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Estimation of runoff is vital forplanning activities in relation to integrated watershed management and flood protection measures. This research was conducted at one of the catchments in Abbay River (upper Blue Nile River) basin to assess the applicabilityof the Hydrologic Engineering Centre Hydrological [...] Read more.
Estimation of runoff is vital forplanning activities in relation to integrated watershed management and flood protection measures. This research was conducted at one of the catchments in Abbay River (upper Blue Nile River) basin to assess the applicabilityof the Hydrologic Engineering Centre Hydrological Modelling Software (HEC-HMS) modelfor simulation of runoff. It was aimed at selecting the best loss and transform methods in the model, as well as testing the applicability of the calibrated model to ungauged watersheds. Two loss methods such as soil conservation service (SCS) and initial and constant methods with two transform methods including SCS and Clark unit hydrographs were considered in the study for selecting the best combinations applicable in the area. While comparing the simulation results of each combination, better results were obtained in the model set containing the initial and constant loss method and SCS unit hydrograph with a Nash-Sutcliff Efficiency (NSE) of 82.8%, R2 of 0.83, and 10.71% of relative bias errors, followed by initial and constant with Clarks unit hydrograph, and it can be used for similar ungauged watersheds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS-Based Hydrology and Water Quality Modeling)
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