Special Issue "Water Management for Climate Smart Agriculture"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Use and Scarcity".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 1 October 2022 | Viewed by 7005

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Michel Riksen
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Soil Physics and Land Management Group, Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands
Interests: rain water harvesting; soil and water conservation
Prof. Dr. Coen J. Ritsema
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Soil Physics and Land Management Group, Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands
Interests: soil physics; soil water dynamics; soil and water conservation
Dr. Karrar Mahdi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Soil Physics and Land Management Group, Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands
Interests: soil and water hydrology; salinity

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The new IPCC report outlines a very clear message. The increase in the Earth’s temperature has resulted in significant changes in local weather conditions. These changes in rainfall and temperature patterns threaten agricultural production and increase the vulnerability of individuals who are dependent on agriculture, therefore affecting their livelihoods. In arid and semi-arid regions, water shortage will become more prominent, due to irregularly distributed rainfall, resulting in increased droughts as well as extreme rainfall events. Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is an approach that has the aim of transforming and reorienting agricultural systems to adapt to the effects of climate change. The aim of this Special Issue is to accumulate the latest knowledge on water management practices, to support CSA in arid and semi-arid regions. We welcome research papers on topics such as the following: water scarcity, water conservation, rain water harvesting, water use efficiency, irrigation (efficiency), hydroponics, salinity, and hydrological modelling. We also encourage attention to be given to socio-economic, policy, and gender-related aspects.

Dr. Michel Riksen
Prof. Dr. Coen J. Ritsema
Dr. Karrar Mahdi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • climate-smart agriculture
  • arid and semi-arid regions
  • water management
  • modelling
  • water use efficiency
  • water scarcity
  • irrigation
  • water conservation
  • water economics
  • water policy

Published Papers (8 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Article
Drought Severity and Frequency Analysis Aided by Spectral and Meteorological Indices in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq
Water 2022, 14(19), 3024; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14193024 (registering DOI) - 26 Sep 2022
Viewed by 246
Abstract
In the past two decades, severe drought has been a recurrent problem in Iraq due in part to climate change. Additionally, the catastrophic drop in the discharge of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and their tributaries has aggravated the drought situation in Iraq, [...] Read more.
In the past two decades, severe drought has been a recurrent problem in Iraq due in part to climate change. Additionally, the catastrophic drop in the discharge of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and their tributaries has aggravated the drought situation in Iraq, which was formerly one of the most water-rich nations in the Middle East. The Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI) also has catastrophic drought conditions. This study analyzed a Landsat time-series dataset from 1998 to 2021 to determine the drought severity status in the KRI. The Modified Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI2) and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) were used as spectral-based drought indices to evaluate the severity of the drought and study the changes in vegetative cover, water bodies, and precipitation. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the Spatial Coefficient of Variation (CV) were used as meteorologically based drought indices. According to this study, the study area had precipitation deficits and severe droughts in 2000, 2008, 2012, and 2021. The MSAVI2 results indicated that the vegetative cover decreased by 36.4%, 39.8%, and 46.3% in 2000, 2008, and 2012, respectively. The SPI’s results indicated that the KRI experienced droughts in 1999, 2000, 2008, 2009, 2012, and 2021, while the southeastern part of the KRI was most affected by drought in 2008. In 2012, the KRI’s western and southern parts were also considerably affected by drought. Furthermore, Lake Dukan (LD), which lost 63.9% of its surface area in 1999, experienced the most remarkable shrinkage among water bodies. Analysis of the geographic distribution of the CV of annual precipitation indicated that the northeastern parts, which get much more precipitation, had less spatial rainfall variability and more uniform distribution throughout the year than other areas. Moreover, the southwest parts exhibited a higher fluctuation in annual spatial variation. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between MSAVI2, SPI, NDWI, and agricultural yield-based vegetation cover. The results also revealed that low precipitation rates are always associated with declining crop yields and LD shrinkage. These findings may be concluded to provide policymakers in the KRI with a scientific foundation for agricultural preservation and drought mitigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Management for Climate Smart Agriculture)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Groundwater Quality Evaluation and the Validity for Agriculture Exploitation in the Erbil Plain in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq
Water 2022, 14(18), 2783; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182783 - 07 Sep 2022
Viewed by 386
Abstract
Climate change and the fast growth of industrial and agricultural enterprises can have a negative impact on groundwater quality. The evaluation of groundwater quality is an important issue to determine the suitability of water for agriculture and other purposes in the Kurdistan Region [...] Read more.
Climate change and the fast growth of industrial and agricultural enterprises can have a negative impact on groundwater quality. The evaluation of groundwater quality is an important issue to determine the suitability of water for agriculture and other purposes in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. The quality of water is an important indicator for selecting the best Climate Smart Agriculture practices that can be applied in the region. Industrial and agricultural enterprises use massive amounts of groundwater pollutants such as fertilizers and pesticides, especially in the agriculture sectors. Groundwater samples were collected from varying depths of 110 to 200 m for chemical and physical analysis to determine water availability and quality as well as the effect of water use and of drought on groundwater level fluctuation in Erbil City. The analysis includes pH, electrical conductivity, temperature, total dissolved solids, major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+) and major anions (SO42−, HCO3, Cl, CO3). The high TDS value is founded in the central part of the study area according to groundwater flow which originates from the mountain area toward the center of the plain. The results of the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) shows that all water well samples are suitable for irrigation which have a low sodium hazard and use on sodium sensitive crops must be cautioned against, and the sodium hazard shows that there is no toxic effect on the plants because all the groundwater samples fall in the standard limits of sodium percent, which is less than 60%. The sodium hazard is low, based on RSC results, because it falls below the standard limit which is less than 1.5 meq/L. All groundwater samples are classified as having excellent-to-good permeability. The classification of the potential salinity of groundwater samples shows that nine water samples are in the class excellent-to-good, three water samples are good-to-injurious, and four samples are injurious-to-unsatisfactory. The water type in the area is mostly sulfate except for three samples, two of which are of the chloride type and the third is bicarbonate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Management for Climate Smart Agriculture)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Assessing Suitable Techniques for Rainwater Harvesting Using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) Methods and GIS Techniques
Water 2022, 14(13), 2110; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14132110 - 01 Jul 2022
Viewed by 549
Abstract
The objective of this study is to produce suitability maps for potential rainwater harvesting techniques (RWHT) in the West Bank (WB), Palestine. These techniques aim to reduce water scarcity, which is a major problem for the conservation of water resources in the area. [...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to produce suitability maps for potential rainwater harvesting techniques (RWHT) in the West Bank (WB), Palestine. These techniques aim to reduce water scarcity, which is a major problem for the conservation of water resources in the area. Based on literature reviews and expert recommendations, seven RWHts were selected (runoff basin system, contour ridges, cisterns, eyebrow terrace, check dam, on-farm pond, and bench terraces). Analysis methods performed in the Arc GIS environment include spatial analysis and data reclassification. Other calculations include multi-criteria analysis for assigning suitability. Five criteria (rainfall, runoff, land use, slope, and soil texture) for RWHt were analyzed to produce a suitability map for each technique. The results show that runoff basin systems in the northeast and southwest of WB are the most suitable, with about 50% of the area of WB moderately suitable for this technique, while 70% of the area of WB is very suitable for the contour ridge technique. Furthermore, this analysis shows that almost 50% of the WB is very suitable for cisterns. Sixty percent of the area is very suitable for on-farm puddling, especially in the north and southwest of WB. The areas with high suitability for the different techniques comprehensively cover the WB, as shown in the RWHt suitability maps and the integrated map. Nevertheless, this approach can help decision makers in making an initial selection of RWH techniques suitable for their region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Management for Climate Smart Agriculture)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Automatic Water Control System and Environment Sensors in a Greenhouse
Water 2022, 14(7), 1166; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14071166 - 06 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 852
Abstract
Iraqi greenhouses require an active microcontroller system to ensure a suitable microclimate for crop production. At the same time, reliable and timely Water Consumption Rate (WCR) forecasts provide an essential means to reduce the amount of water loss and maintain the environmental conditions [...] Read more.
Iraqi greenhouses require an active microcontroller system to ensure a suitable microclimate for crop production. At the same time, reliable and timely Water Consumption Rate (WCR) forecasts provide an essential means to reduce the amount of water loss and maintain the environmental conditions inside the greenhouses. The Arduino micro-controller system is tested to determine its effectiveness in controlling the WCR, Temperature (T), Relative Humidity (RH), and Irrigation Time (IT) levels and improving plant growth rates. The Arduino micro-controller system measurements are compared with the traditional methods to determine the quality of the work of the new control system. The development of mathematical models relies on T, RH, and IT indicators. Based on the results, the new system proves to reliably identify the amount of WCR, IT, T, and RH necessary for plant growth. A t-test for the values from the Arduino microcontroller system and traditional devices for both conditions show no significant difference. This means that there is solid evidence that the WCR, IT, T, and RH levels for these two groups are no different. In addition, the linear, two-factor interaction (2FI), and quadratic models display acceptable performance very well since multiple coefficients of determination (R2) reached 0.962, 0.969, and 0.977% with IT, T, and RH as the predictor variables. This implies that 96.9% of the variability in the WCR is explained by the model. Therefore, it is possible to predict weekly WCR 14 weeks in advance with reasonable accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Management for Climate Smart Agriculture)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Geospatial Approach for Analysis of Drought Impacts on Vegetation Cover and Land Surface Temperature in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq
Water 2022, 14(6), 927; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14060927 - 16 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1140
Abstract
Drought is a common event in Iraq’s climate, and the country has severely suffered from drought episodes in the last two decades. The Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI) is geographically situated in the semi-arid zone in Iraq, whose water resources have been limited [...] Read more.
Drought is a common event in Iraq’s climate, and the country has severely suffered from drought episodes in the last two decades. The Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI) is geographically situated in the semi-arid zone in Iraq, whose water resources have been limited in the last decades and mostly shared with other neighboring countries. To analyze drought impacts on the vegetation cover and the land surface temperature in the KRI for a span of 20 years from 1998 to 2017, remote sensing (RS) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) have been adopted in this study. For this study, 120 Landsat satellite images were downloaded and utilized, whereas six images covering the entire study area were used for each year of the study period. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Land Surfaces Temperature Index (LST) were applied to produce multi-temporal classified drought maps. Changes in the area and values of the classified NDVI and LST were calculated and mapped. Mann–Kendall and Sen’s Slope statistical tests were used to assess the variability of drought indices variation in 60 locations in the study area. The results revealed increases in severity and frequency of drought over the study period, particularly in the years 2000 and 2008, which were characterized by an increase in land surface temperatures, a decrease in vegetation area cover, and a lack of precipitation averages. Climate conditions affect the increase/decrease of the vegetated cover area, and geographical variability is also one factor that significantly influences the distribution of vegetation. It can be concluded that the southeast and southwestern parts of the KRI were subjected to the most severe droughts over the past 20 years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Management for Climate Smart Agriculture)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Sustainability of the Al-Abila Dam in the Western Desert of Iraq
Water 2022, 14(4), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040586 - 15 Feb 2022
Viewed by 552
Abstract
Water scarcity is a major problem in the arid climate of Iraq’s Western Desert and people struggle to manage the precarious water supply. Harvesting rainwater is one sustainable method that can be used to increase the supply of water. Rainwater harvesting systems (RWH) [...] Read more.
Water scarcity is a major problem in the arid climate of Iraq’s Western Desert and people struggle to manage the precarious water supply. Harvesting rainwater is one sustainable method that can be used to increase the supply of water. Rainwater harvesting systems (RWH) are considered to be sustainable “if they can continue collecting, utilising, and consuming natural water resources for maximum livelihood development”. This study assessed the sustainably of the Al- Abila dam in Iraq’s Western Desert by determining its level of functionality in harvesting water and using it effectively. The reliability of the water supply and its potential productivity and water use efficiency were investigated as well. The balancing storage at the end of each runoff shows that dam storage of this magnitude is insufficient to fulfil the water demand. This research highlighted constraints that have affected system functioning or sustainability and provided suggestions and recommendations for risk-managed rainwater harvesting system installation methods and designs. The water conveyance factor and adequacy of the system were low, with 60% conveyance losses. This research helps policymakers to conduct large-scale, high-level assessments and answer basic problems about small earth dam development and management in Anbar’s Western Desert. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Management for Climate Smart Agriculture)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Feasibility Assessment of Potential Artificial Recharge for Increasing Agricultural Areas in the Kerbala Desert in Iraq Using Numerical Groundwater Modeling
Water 2021, 13(22), 3167; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223167 - 10 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 872
Abstract
Groundwater in Iraq is considered to be an alternative water resource, especially for areas far away from surface water. Groundwater is affected by many factors including climate change, industrial activities, urbanization, and industrialization. In this study, the effect of artificial recharge on the [...] Read more.
Groundwater in Iraq is considered to be an alternative water resource, especially for areas far away from surface water. Groundwater is affected by many factors including climate change, industrial activities, urbanization, and industrialization. In this study, the effect of artificial recharge on the quantity of groundwater in the Dibdibba unconfined aquifer in Iraq was simulated using a groundwater modeling system (GMS). The main raw water source used in the artificial recharge process was the reclaimed water output (tertiary treatment) from the main wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Kerbala, with 20 injection wells. After calibration and validation of the three-dimensional numerical model used in this study and taking wastewater recharge rates into account, two different scenarios were applied to obtain the expected behavior of the aquifer when the groundwater levels were augmented with 5% and 10% of the daily outflow production of the WWTP in Kerbala. The model matched the observed head elevations with R2 = 0.951 for steady state and R2= 0.894 for transient simulations. The results indicate that the injection of treated water through 20 wells raised the water table in more than 91 and 136 km2 for 5000 and 10,000 m3/day pumping rates, respectively. Moreover, increasing the volume of water added to the aquifer could lead to establishing new agricultural areas, spanning more than 62 km2, extending about 20 km along the river. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Management for Climate Smart Agriculture)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Water Quality, Availability, and Uses in Rural Communities in the Kurdistan Region, Iraq
Water 2021, 13(20), 2927; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202927 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1104
Abstract
Water resource management and the investigation of the quality and quantity of groundwater and surface water is important in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. The growing population, as well as agricultural and industrial projects, consume huge amounts of water, especially groundwater. A total [...] Read more.
Water resource management and the investigation of the quality and quantity of groundwater and surface water is important in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. The growing population, as well as agricultural and industrial projects, consume huge amounts of water, especially groundwater. A total of 572 ground and surface water samples were collected for physicochemical analysis to determine the availability and quality of the water in the Kurdistan region. The physicochemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, and total dissolved solids were analyzed to evaluate the suitability of the water for different purposes like livestock, irrigation, and agriculture. GIS-based multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) was used to determine the suitability map of water for irrigation purposes. Most of the groundwater samples were suitable for irrigation except for some samples from Erbil City, especially those taken in the Makhmur district, and samples from some small areas in the cities of Sulaymania and Duhok. All groundwater samples were acceptable for all types of agricultural crops, except for 15 well samples that were determined not to be usable for fruit crops. However, this water was acceptable for livestock and poultry. Most of the water wells provided freshwater except for 36 deep wells, which supplied slightly brackish to brackish water. Water samples were found to have low to medium salinity levels except for 26 well samples and one spring sample that had high salinity levels, and 2 well samples with very high salinity levels. Most of the samples had an excellent to good water classification except for 85 samples classified as permissible, 8 classified as doubtful, and 4 classified as unsuitable for irrigation according to the Todd classification. According to the Rhoades classification, all water samples were non-saline to slightly saline except for 11 samples that were moderately saline. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Management for Climate Smart Agriculture)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop