Mine Water Safety and Environment

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrogeology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 November 2023) | Viewed by 16869

Special Issue Editors

School of Resources and Geosciences, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, China
Interests: Interests: mine water hazard; pollution prevention and control; mine water utilization; mine water injection; water-preserved coal mining
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Guest Editor
School of Resource and Earth Science, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, China
Interests: mine water hazard; pollution prevention and control; mine water utilization; mine water injection; water-preserved coal mining
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology, Dnipro University of Technology, Dnipro, Ukraine
Interests: modeling of fluid and gas flow; heat and mass transport in aquifers and fractured rocks; mining hydrogeology; modeling coal and gas outbursts; safety of tailings management facilities

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Coal mining usually produces a large amount of mine water and causes a series of safety and environmental impact problems. The whole life of coal mines is challenged by mine water safety, groundwater pollution, mine water resource utilization and ecological environment protection. Although many scholars have been rapidly advancing the field by adopting new ideas and concepts, the safety of mining conditions and the groundwater environment in the mining area have been greatly improved, and the technology, processes and materials of mine water prevention and treatment have been greatly developed, but there are still some problems. These include the development of new methods and models for the management of floor and roof mine water hazards, the sampling and detection of pollutants in the coal mine area, high-efficiency and low-cost mine water treatment, unconventional mine water resources utilization, groundwater protection, geological storage of mine water, etc.

Therefore, we are pleased to organize a new Special Issue of Water titled “Mine Water Safety and Environment”.

This Special Issue aims to publish multidisciplinary scholarly works focusing on obtaining an in-depth understanding of the scientific principles and mechanisms, including critical technology, challenges and ideas, for mine water hazard and pollution prevention, water-preserved coal mining, mine water reinjection and geological storage, the treatment and utilization of mine water, and the modeling of groundwater in mining areas.

For this Special Issue of Water, we welcome papers addressing topics including, but not limited to:

  • Prevention and control of mine water hazard;
  • Prevention and control of mine water pollution;
  • Water-preserved coal mining;
  • Geo-evolution and biogeochemical process of mine water quality;
  • Mine water reinjection and geological storage;
  • Water pollution in mine closure;
  • Treatment and utilization of mine water;
  • Modeling of groundwater in mining area

Dr. Zhimin Xu
Prof. Dr. Yajun Sun
Prof. Dr. Dmytro Rudakov
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • mine water hazard prevention
  • mine water pollution prevention
  • mine water injection and storage
  • water-preserved coal mining
  • abandoned mine water
  • geo-evolution of mine water
  • mine water utilization
  • modeling of groundwater in mining areas

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

16 pages, 1265 KiB  
Article
Application and Research of Microseismic Monitoring System and Hydraulic Fracturing Technology in Coal Mines
by Hui Sun, Na He and Filip Gurkalo
Water 2024, 16(7), 1062; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16071062 - 7 Apr 2024
Viewed by 780
Abstract
In order to improve the effectiveness of coal mine gas control and enhance the level of coal mine safety production, the application of a microseismic monitoring system and hydraulic fracturing technology in coal mines was studied. Applying hydraulic fracturing technology to coal mine [...] Read more.
In order to improve the effectiveness of coal mine gas control and enhance the level of coal mine safety production, the application of a microseismic monitoring system and hydraulic fracturing technology in coal mines was studied. Applying hydraulic fracturing technology to coal mine gas treatment, firstly, the geological structure and gas concentration in the mining area are detected using the radio tunnel perspective method and infrared differential absorption method. Then, the relevant parameters of hydraulic fracturing are determined, and finally, hydraulic fracturing technology is implemented. Microseismic monitoring technology is used to monitor the cracks formed during hydraulic fracturing construction and evaluate the fracturing effect. The instantaneous energy envelope is obtained from the microseismic data of each detection channel after stacking and Hilbert transform static correction. A microseismic in-phase inversion positioning objective function based on travel time residuals is constructed, and under the constraints of polarization analysis, the optimal solution is obtained through search iteration to complete microseismic in-phase inversion positioning. Experimental results have shown that after applying this method to coal mine gas control, the gas concentration decreases below the execution standard, achieving good control effects. Under microseismic monitoring in coal mines, the hydraulic fracturing effect can be effectively and reasonably evaluated, and the safety production level of coal mines can be improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mine Water Safety and Environment)
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17 pages, 7792 KiB  
Article
Quantitative Evaluation Method and Response Mechanism of Shallow Groundwater in Multi-Mine Mining of “Soil–Rock” Composite Water-Resisting Strata
by Shuai Zhang, Dongsheng Zhang, Yujiang Zhang, Guorui Feng and Bingyuan Cui
Water 2024, 16(5), 723; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16050723 - 28 Feb 2024
Viewed by 849
Abstract
The sustainability of shallow groundwater systems, pivotal to maintaining ecosystem equilibrium and facilitating the sustainable development of mine sites, is the core of various dynamic indicators in response to mining activity and mining area planning. This study quantitatively evaluates the impact of mining [...] Read more.
The sustainability of shallow groundwater systems, pivotal to maintaining ecosystem equilibrium and facilitating the sustainable development of mine sites, is the core of various dynamic indicators in response to mining activity and mining area planning. This study quantitatively evaluates the impact of mining activities on shallow groundwater systems at the orefield scale, taking the equivalent permeability coefficient (EPC) of “Soil–Rock” composite water-resisting strata and the response mechanism of shallow groundwater in multi-mine mining as the entry points. A modified six-step evaluation method for the response mechanism of shallow groundwater in multi-mine mining is proposed using mathematical statistics, numerical simulation, and theoretical analysis methods. The method is used to evaluate the sustainability of the shallow water system in the Yushen mining area, to study the distribution characteristics of the water resource carrying capacity (WRCC) in different mining areas of the Yushen area, and to analyze the number of mines allowed to be mined under geological conditions with a WRCC of more than moderate bearing capacity. The results show that when the mining area of a mine in the Yushen area is set to 1 × 108, 7.5 × 107, 5 × 107, and 2.5 × 107 m2, as the mining area of the designed mine decreases, the area bearing surplus gradually increases, with values of 1.70 × 109, 1.98 × 109, 2.28 × 109, and 2.58 × 109 m2. The number of mines allowed to be mined under geological conditions with a WRCC above moderate capacity is 20, 31, 51, and 112, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mine Water Safety and Environment)
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13 pages, 7366 KiB  
Article
Study of the Catastrophic Process of Water–Sand Inrush in a Deep Buried Stope with Thin Bedrock
by Tao Li, Yuesong Tang, Lianghui Li, Haoyu Hu, Zheng Li, Jiqing He and Bochao An
Water 2023, 15(15), 2847; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15152847 - 7 Aug 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1057
Abstract
Taking the 14,030 panel of Zhaogu No. 2 coal mine as its research object, this paper studies the evolution characteristics of the developing height, propagation track and caving arch shape of water-flowing fractures under the influence of thick alluvium by utilizing a physical [...] Read more.
Taking the 14,030 panel of Zhaogu No. 2 coal mine as its research object, this paper studies the evolution characteristics of the developing height, propagation track and caving arch shape of water-flowing fractures under the influence of thick alluvium by utilizing a physical experiment, theoretical analysis and field investigation. The results show that the height and limit span of the water-flowing fracture zone experience four stages, which include the initial stage, slow-increasing stage, sudden-increasing stage and stable-increasing stage. With the increase in the mining influence range, the shape of the water-flowing fracture in overburden under the influence of thick alluvium is gradually formed. The water in the thick alluvium and the water in the upper phreatic aquifer of the bedrock penetrate each other to form a concentrated danger zone, and the expansion track of the mining water-flowing fracture connects the hydraulic connection between the upper concentrated danger zone of overburden and the panel of No. 2’s first coal seam. A large amount of water mixed with sandstone flows into the fracture surface of the bedrock’s broken rock block through the water-flowing fracture, leading to the instability of the load-bearing structure composed of the thick alluvium caving arch and the towering roof beam, which illustrates the whole process of water–sand inrush accidents in thin bedrock stope with deep thick alluvium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mine Water Safety and Environment)
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19 pages, 3869 KiB  
Article
Types and Source Apportionment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Soil-Groundwater of a Closed Coking Plant in Shanxi Province, China
by Ze Li, Qiyan Feng, Jinhua Dang, Yanqing Rong, Xueqiang Zhu, Lei Meng and Xin Zhang
Water 2023, 15(11), 2002; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15112002 - 25 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1473
Abstract
To clarify the impact of coking industry activities on the soil-groundwater Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) occurrence, a typical coking site in Shanxi Province was taken as the study area, and soil and groundwater samples were collected to analyze the pollution level, composition, and [...] Read more.
To clarify the impact of coking industry activities on the soil-groundwater Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) occurrence, a typical coking site in Shanxi Province was taken as the study area, and soil and groundwater samples were collected to analyze the pollution level, composition, and distribution of PAHs in soil-groundwater. The sources of PAHs in the study area were identified based on the positive matrix decomposition model (PMF); the health risks of PAHs were calculated based on the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risk model from the Technical Guidelines for Risk Assessment of Soil Pollution for Construction Land (HJ 25.3-2019) and toxicity equivalent quantity (TEQ). The results showed that ∑PAHs of soil ranged from 0 to 6077.7 mg/kg, with an average value of 198.02 mg/kg; ∑PAHs of groundwater ranged from 0 to 18.30 mg/L, with an average value of 9.39 mg/L. In horizontal distribution, ∑PAH content and types in the tar processing area were much higher than those in the surrounding area, and PAHs might migrate to the southwest through infiltration; in vertical distribution, ∑PAH content reached a peak at 5 m underground. According to the PMF model results, four primary sources of ∑PAHs were identified, which were the coking production source (55.0%), coal and petroleum combustion source (22.6%), atmospheric deposition source (13.1%) and residents living source (9.3%). The total average ∑PAH carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risks of soil in the study area were 7.05 × 10−6 and 0.695; the average TEQBaP−∑PAHs was 1.650 mg·TEQ/g; as for groundwater, they were 3.08 × 10−6 and 32.04; the average TEQBaP−∑PAHs was 9.390 μg·TEQ/L, indicating that PAHs both in soil and groundwater had potential health risks. This study provides a basis for the same coking site type for pollution control, secondary utilization, and data support for future site restoration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mine Water Safety and Environment)
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15 pages, 4221 KiB  
Article
Classification of Water Source in Coal Mine Based on PCA-GA-ET
by Zhenwei Yang, Hang Lv, Xinyi Wang, Hengrui Yan and Zhaofeng Xu
Water 2023, 15(10), 1945; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15101945 - 21 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1507
Abstract
In recent years, inrush water has hampered the regular mining of coal mines, and the proper identification of the source of inrush water is critical to the prevention and management of water hazards in mines. This paper extracts the standard water chemistry discriminating [...] Read more.
In recent years, inrush water has hampered the regular mining of coal mines, and the proper identification of the source of inrush water is critical to the prevention and management of water hazards in mines. This paper extracts the standard water chemistry discriminating ions Na++K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl, SO42−, and HCO3 from observed water samples. An improved water source discrimination model is proposed which combines algorithms from data mining, classification models, and learning reinforcement. According to the Pearson correlation coefficient, Na++K+ has a strong correlation with HCO3. To identify the major metrics, we performed principal component analysis (PCA), and the adaptive differential evolutionary genetic algorithm (GA) was utilized to optimize the depth of the extreme tree (ET) and the number of classifiers. Finally, the model distinguished 25 sets of studied samples from various water sources in the Pingdingshan coalfield. Comparative analysis demonstrated the efficacy of each stage of our work. PCA-GA-ET outperformed the conventional approaches, such as the support vector machine, BP artificial neural network, and random forest. The studies revealed that PCA-GA-ET can eliminate the information overlap between data and simplify the data structure and thereby improve the efficiency and accuracy of water source detection. We discovered that by utilizing the evolutionary algorithm to optimize parameters such as the depth of the extreme trees and the number of decision trees, we could get the model to converge faster and to be more stable and more accurate. The results suggest that PCA-GA-ET has good robustness and accuracy and can meet the needs of water source identification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mine Water Safety and Environment)
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21 pages, 8153 KiB  
Article
Size Effects of Rough Fracture Seepage in Rocks of Different Scales
by Zhuolin Shi, Qiangling Yao, Weinan Wang, Fengsheng Su, Xuehua Li, Liu Zhu and Chengle Wu
Water 2023, 15(10), 1912; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15101912 - 18 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1339
Abstract
Percolation experiments were conducted on coal samples with various fracture lengths and inclination angles under different stress conditions using a gravity-loaded rock percolation test device. The goals of these experiments are (1) to improve the technology for protecting water resources while mining coal [...] Read more.
Percolation experiments were conducted on coal samples with various fracture lengths and inclination angles under different stress conditions using a gravity-loaded rock percolation test device. The goals of these experiments are (1) to improve the technology for protecting water resources while mining coal and (2) to enhance the research on how the size effects of fracture affect seepage. A three-dimensional seepage model was constructed using COMSOL numerical simulation software for larger fracture lengths ranging from 1 to 30 m to investigate the seepage pattern under the coupling of fracture roughness, fracture width, and other factors. Multiple regression analysis was used to investigate the effects of different factors on seepage from large and small fractures independently. The results show that, under laboratory conditions, for fracture lengths 10–70 mm (small length), permeability increases non-linearly with an increase in fracture length, and the overall increase is approximately 1.8 times. Whereas, for fracture lengths of 1–30 m (large length) in the simulation, permeability decreases and then increases with an increase in fracture length, and the overall change is approximately 0.03 times. The permeability varies in three stages (1–8 m obvious change, 8–23 m stabilization, 23–30 m stability) under different fracture lengths, widths, and roughness conditions. Acritical size was found to exist. The effect of fracture length on large length fracture seepage and small length fracture seepage was further verified by parameter sensitivity. The results of this study further reveal the mechanism of fracture seepage under coupling of fracture geometry size stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mine Water Safety and Environment)
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13 pages, 2922 KiB  
Article
Research on the Damage Law and Prevention Measures of the Substrate under the Action of Water and Rock
by Qiushuang Zheng and Lifu Pang
Water 2023, 15(8), 1527; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15081527 - 13 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1338
Abstract
The potential of sudden water accidents induced by damage to the bottom slab that forms a water channel due to the action of karst water calls for research on the damage law of coal seam floors under the coupling effect of mining and [...] Read more.
The potential of sudden water accidents induced by damage to the bottom slab that forms a water channel due to the action of karst water calls for research on the damage law of coal seam floors under the coupling effect of mining and karst water. In this study, the coupling situation of karst water and floor rock was analyzed based on the theory of rock mechanics and fracture mechanics, combined with the actual geological conditions of a coal seam floor. The law of water-rock coupling was investigated using theoretical analysis and mechanical tests. Results indicate that the strength of the bottom slab rock decreased significantly when the karst pore water was coupled with the bottom slab rock. A three-dimensional numerical model was established using FLAC3D software to simulate the mining situation of the working face under different water pressures. By analyzing the stress change, water pressure change, and plastic zone damage of the bottom slab, it was discovered that the damage effect of karst water pressure on the bottom slab continues to increase when the water pressure is greater than 3 MPa. The impact caused by water pressure greater than 6 MPa occurs gradually. Analysis of measures to prevent and control sudden water on the bottom slab indicates that grouting reinforcement can effectively prevent and control the bottom slab karst sudden water problem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mine Water Safety and Environment)
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14 pages, 7500 KiB  
Article
Research on the Capacity of Underground Reservoirs in Coal Mines to Protect the Groundwater Resources: A Case of Zhangshuanglou Coal Mine in Xuzhou, China
by Chenghang Zhang, Bin Luo, Zhimin Xu, Yajun Sun and Lin Feng
Water 2023, 15(8), 1468; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15081468 - 9 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1926
Abstract
This study analyzes the ability of coal mine underground reservoirs to protect groundwater resources. As the demand for coal mining continues to increase, the potential impact on groundwater resources around mines has become a growing problem. Underground water reservoirs, also known as coal [...] Read more.
This study analyzes the ability of coal mine underground reservoirs to protect groundwater resources. As the demand for coal mining continues to increase, the potential impact on groundwater resources around mines has become a growing problem. Underground water reservoirs, also known as coal mine underground reservoirs, have been constructed as a solution to protect water wastage in mining operations. However, there is a lack of awareness related to the ability of underground water reservoirs in mines to protect groundwater resources. In this study, we used FLAC3D software to analyze the formation process, water storage volume, and central storage location of the underground water reservoir in Zhangshuanglou Coal Mine. The results show that the damaged volume is 3.39 × 106 m3, and the groundwater resources that can be protected by coal mine underground reservoirs in the study area amount to 1.98 × 105 m3. We found that the storage capacity of underground reservoirs is more significantly affected by the extent of mining, which can be expressed as y = 49,056.44 + 255.75x + 1.46x2 (R2 = 0.995) (x ≠ 0). Additionally, the water storage location obtained through simulation can provide a reference for the construction of underground reservoir regulation and water storage projects. The results of the water quality analysis indicate that the concentrations of SO42− decreased by 42% with the closure of the mining area, and the pH also gradually converged to neutral. This highlights the significant role of underground water reservoirs in coal mines in promoting green production and protecting water resources and the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mine Water Safety and Environment)
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22 pages, 11838 KiB  
Article
A GIS-Based Probabilistic Spatial Multicriteria Roof Water Inrush Risk Evaluation Method Considering Decision Makers’ Risk-Coping Attitude
by Dangliang Wang, Chengyue Gao, Kerui Liu, Junling Gong, Yafei Fang and Shijie Xiong
Water 2023, 15(2), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15020254 - 6 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1587
Abstract
A combination of geographic information system (GIS) and spatial multicriteria decision making (MCDA) in mine water inrush risk evaluation is widely used, but the randomness in the process of index weight determination and the risk-coping attitude of decision makers are not considered in [...] Read more.
A combination of geographic information system (GIS) and spatial multicriteria decision making (MCDA) in mine water inrush risk evaluation is widely used, but the randomness in the process of index weight determination and the risk-coping attitude of decision makers are not considered in the decision making process. Therefore, this paper proposes a probability-based roof water inrush risk evaluation method (GIS-MCDA) by combining the Monte Carlo analytic hierarchy process (MAHP) and ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operator. This method uses MAHP to determine the weight of the evaluation indicators, reducing the randomness of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to determine the weight of the evaluation indicators using the OWA operator to quantify the five risk-coping attitudes of decision makers and incorporate the risk attitude of decision makers into the evaluation process. Taking the Liangshuijing Coal Mine in northern Shaanxi as an example, the application of the GIS-MCDA method showed that the method makes the risk results of roof water inrush more objective and comprehensive and reduces or avoids the risk of decision making due to human subjective tendency change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mine Water Safety and Environment)
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Review

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16 pages, 1906 KiB  
Review
Application and Prospect of Curtain Grouting Technology in Mine Water Safety Management in China: A Review
by Shichong Yuan, Bangtao Sun, Guilei Han, Weiqiang Duan and Zhixiu Wang
Water 2022, 14(24), 4093; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14244093 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3108
Abstract
In China, mine curtain grouting has become an important technology to ensure the safe and efficient mining of deep mineral resources and protect regional groundwater resources after more than 60 years of development and improvement. This review paper summarizes and analyzes four aspects [...] Read more.
In China, mine curtain grouting has become an important technology to ensure the safe and efficient mining of deep mineral resources and protect regional groundwater resources after more than 60 years of development and improvement. This review paper summarizes and analyzes four aspects of the current situation of curtain grouting technology in deep underground mines: curtain construction conditions, theoretical design and effects, drilling structures, and grouting materials’ research and development. In addition, several main problems of curtain grouting technology in deep underground mines are analyzed: planning and construction lag behind; the theory of mine curtain grouting is not mature enough; the investigation into the mechanism of consolidation and deterioration of grout slurry under long-term high pressure is insufficient; there is a lack of research on the long-term effectiveness of monitoring and evaluation, so precise drilling control technology needs further breakthroughs. In addition, the development directions of this technology are put forward from three aspects: precise directional drilling technology; the consolidation mechanism and durability of slurry under multi-field coupling conditions; and long-term dynamic monitoring, evaluation, and early warning for grouting curtain effectiveness. In the future, mine curtain grouting will become an important mine geological guarantee technology for safety, efficiency, accurate, sustainability, and green mining of the Earth’s deep resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mine Water Safety and Environment)
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