An Innovative Approach to Cleaning Up Organic and Inorganic Contaminations from Soil and Water

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Soil and Water".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 February 2023) | Viewed by 21206

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Soil Science and Land Assessment, Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don, Russia
Interests: heavy metals; adsorption; soil-plant system; water treatment; nanomaterials; remediation
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Guest Editor
Academy of Biology and Biotechnology, Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don, Russia
Interests: photocatalysis, Fenton, and adsorption from water to the soil-polluted areas; soil remediation; water treatment; nano-enabled technologies for soil and water, environmental nanotechnology
Department of Botany, Mahatma Gandhi Central University, Motihari, India
Interests: microbiology; nanotechnology; plant microbe interaction; microbial nanobiotechnology; agriculture sustainability
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Traditional approaches have progressively been shown to be insufficient to maintain an appropriate level of pollutants elimination from soil and water systems, which is a rising source of worry. In order to make the levels acceptable, innovative materials, novel reagents, and cutting-edge technologies are required. The connection between two fields of soil to water, especially organic/inorganic pollutions such as heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) removal still has many research gaps to be addressed. This Special Issue, entitled “An innovative approach to cleaning up organic and inorganic contaminations from soil and water”, focuses on existing advancements and the prospective usage of cutting-edge technology in order to fill these gaps. In this Special Issue, we encourage submissions on physiochemical, biochemical and nano-enhanced bio/phyto-remediation techniques for eliminating polluted water and soil. Additionally, this Special Issue will welcome studies in the areas of fate and transport research, pollutant transfer prediction and modeling, design, characterisation, and modification of novel amendments, and cutting-edge assessment of remediation results. Submissions for the soil and water area are accepted in the form of original research papers, reviews, and short communications.

Topics may include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Fate and transport of contaminants in soil and water;
  • Evaluate the health risk assessment derived from heavy metal contaminated waters and soils;
  • Innovative methodologies in design, characterization, modification, and optimization of amendments and adsorbents in soil and water;
  • Advances in heavy metal removal methods using novel materials, reagents, and innovative technologies and methodologies;  
  • Technologies combination and the potential interactions;
  • Effects of acid rain on the migration, mobility, and speciation of heavy metals in soils.

Nano-enhanced bio/phyto-remediation techniques.

Dr. Saglara S. Mandzhieva
Dr. Mahmoud Mazarji
Dr. Vishnu D. Rajput
Dr. Ram Prasad
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • water treatment
  • soil remediation
  • heavy metals removal, advanced materials
  • nanomaterials
  • adsorbents, soil leaching
  • heavy metal fractionation
  • column experiments, nano-enhanced approaches

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 170 KiB  
Editorial
An Innovative Approach to Cleaning Up Organic and Inorganic Contaminations from Soil and Water
by Saglara Mandzhieva, Mahmoud Mazarji, Vishnu D. Rajput and Ram Prasad
Water 2023, 15(18), 3202; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15183202 - 8 Sep 2023
Viewed by 649
Abstract
Changes in cultivation practices, rapidly increasing anthropogenic activities, and huge industrial waste generation severely affect soil and water ecosystems [...] Full article

Research

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18 pages, 6417 KiB  
Article
Ecological and Human Health Risks of Metal–PAH Combined Pollution in Riverine and Coastal Soils of Southern Russia
by Elizaveta Konstantinova, Tatiana Minkina, Saglara Mandzhieva, Dina Nevidomskaya, Tatiana Bauer, Inna Zamulina, Svetlana Sushkova, Mikhail Lychagin, Vishnu D. Rajput and Ming Hung Wong
Water 2023, 15(2), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15020234 - 5 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2363
Abstract
The floodplains and seacoasts of southern Russia are characterized by urbanization, developed agriculture, and rapidly developing industries. Anthropogenic activity leads to the long-term release of pollutants into the environment, which threatens the stability of ecosystems and public health. The study aimed to assess [...] Read more.
The floodplains and seacoasts of southern Russia are characterized by urbanization, developed agriculture, and rapidly developing industries. Anthropogenic activity leads to the long-term release of pollutants into the environment, which threatens the stability of ecosystems and public health. The study aimed to assess the ecological and human health risks posed by potentially toxic elements (PTEs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the topsoils of the Taganrog Bay coast and the Lower Don floodplain. Concentrations of PTEs and PAHs were measured using X-ray fluorescence and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Except for the comparatively most toxic Cd, which ranged from low to moderate, ecological risk factors indicated a low risk for PTEs. The cumulative ecological risk of PTEs was low. Zn, As, Cd, and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) were the most dangerous pollutants, with concentrations 1–2 orders of magnitude higher than the maximum permissible concentrations (MPCs). Mostly sandy soils were characterized by high and very high individual pollution since they have more stringent quality standards due to their lower resistance to contamination. Significant concern is caused by the total contamination of soils with PAHs. A comparison of the toxic equivalent quotient of PAHs with the MPC of BaP showed high or very high contamination in two-thirds of the samples. The non-carcinogenic risk for adults in the region was negligible, whereas the risk for children was low. Dermal contact with PTEs and PAHs contributed to a significant non-carcinogenic risk. Only the combined intake of pollutants poses a substantial risk for children. Over most of the research area, total carcinogenic risk surpasses the threshold, indicating a low risk, with As being the most important contributor. The results of the study showed that PAHs pose a greater potential ecological risk than PTEs, and the opposite trend was observed in relation to the risk of negative impacts on human health. In this regard, taking into account the combined influence of different types of components allows for a more comprehensive risk assessments. Full article
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20 pages, 3107 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Heavy Metal Distribution and Health Risk of Vegetable Crops Grown on Soils Amended with Municipal Solid Waste Compost for Sustainable Urban Agriculture
by Pallavi Bhardwaj, Rajesh Kumar Sharma, Abhishek Chauhan, Anuj Ranjan, Vishnu D. Rajput, Tatiana Minkina, Saglara S. Mandzhieva, Usha Mina, Shikha Wadhwa, Prakash Bobde and Ashutosh Tripathi
Water 2023, 15(2), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15020228 - 5 Jan 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2840
Abstract
Rapid urbanization is one of the key factors that leads to defragmentation and the shrinking of agricultural land. It further leads to the generation of an ample amount of municipal waste. Several technologies have emerged in the past for its utilization, and in [...] Read more.
Rapid urbanization is one of the key factors that leads to defragmentation and the shrinking of agricultural land. It further leads to the generation of an ample amount of municipal waste. Several technologies have emerged in the past for its utilization, and in this regard, composting is one of the conventional approaches gaining popularity in modern agriculture. To overcome the possible criticality of intense urbanization, the concept of urban agriculture is taking shape. Municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) has been popularly explored for the soil amendments and nutritional requirements of crops. With this, the assessment of soil pollution (due to the heavy metals presently found in MSWC) is a required step for its safe application in agriculture. The present study aims at assessing the utilization of MSWC (in different ratios) to amend the soil and its impact on the growth and yield of brinjal (Solanum melongena), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). The study also explored the uptake of heavy metals by plants and their risk to human consumption. The findings suggested that MSWC amendments upgraded the physio-chemical properties of soil, including organic matter (OM) and micronutrients, and increased the heavy metal concentrations in soil. Heavy metal analysis underlined the presence of several heavy metals both in soil and crops. Total metal concentration in soil increased with increased MSWC dosage. Concerning metal uptake by crop plants, 25% of MSWC was found to impart metal concentrations within permissible values in edible parts of crops. On the contrary, 50%, 75%, and 100% compost showed higher metal concentrations in the crops. A Health Risk Index (HRI) of less than 1 was found to be associated with soil amended with 25% MSWC. Our study implies that MSWC significantly improved the growth and yield of crops, and it can be considered an alternative to chemical fertilizer but only in a safer ratio (≤25%). However, further studies are required, especially on field conditions to validate the findings regarding metal accumulation. Full article
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23 pages, 5128 KiB  
Article
Pb(II) Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption on Stabilized Zero-Valent Iron Nanoparticles—A Green Approach
by Saloome Sepehri, Elahe Kanani, Sima Abdoli, Vishnu D. Rajput, Tatiana Minkina and Behnam Asgari Lajayer
Water 2023, 15(2), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15020222 - 4 Jan 2023
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3039
Abstract
Nano zero-valent iron particles (nZVFe) are known as one of the most effective materials for the treatment of contaminated water. However, a strong tendency to agglomerate has been reported as one of their major drawbacks. The present study describes a green approach to [...] Read more.
Nano zero-valent iron particles (nZVFe) are known as one of the most effective materials for the treatment of contaminated water. However, a strong tendency to agglomerate has been reported as one of their major drawbacks. The present study describes a green approach to synthesizing stabilized nZVFe, using biomass as a porous support material. Therefore, in the first step, biomass-derived activated carbon was prepared by thermochemical procedure from rice straw (RSAC), and then the RSAC-supported nZVFe composite (nZVFe–RSAC) was employed to extract Pb(II) from aqueous solution and was successfully synthesized by the sodium borohydride reduction method. It was confirmed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) characteristics that the nZVFe particles are uniformly dispersed. Results of the batch experiments showed that 6 (g L−1) of this nanocomposite could effectively remove about 97% of Pb(II) ions at pH = 6 from aqueous solution. The maximum adsorption capacities of the RS, RSAC, and nZVFe–RSAC were 23.3, 67.8, and 140.8 (mg g−1), respectively. Based on the results of the adsorption isotherm studies, the adsorption of Pb(II) on nZVFe–RSAC is consistent with the Langmuir–Freundlich isotherm model R2=0.996). The thermodynamic outcomes exhibited the endothermic, possible, and spontaneous nature of adsorption. Adsorption enthalpy and entropy values were determined as 32.2 kJ mol−1 and 216.9 J mol−1 K−1, respectively. Adsorption kinetics data showed that Pb(II) adsorption onto nZVFe–RSAC was fitted well according to a pseudo-second-order model. Most importantly, the investigation of the adsorption mechanism showed that nZVFe particles are involved in the removal of Pb(II) ions through two main processes, namely Pb adsorption on the surface of nZVFe particles and direct role in the redox reaction. Subsequently, all intermediates produced through the redox reaction between nZVFe and Pb(II) were adsorbed on the nZVFe–RSAC surface. According to the results of the NZVFe–RSAC recyclability experiments, even after five cycles of recovery, this nanocomposite can retain more than 60% of its initial removal efficiency. So, the nZVFe–RSAC nanocomposite could be a promising material for permeable reactive barriers given its potential for removing Pb(II) ions. Due to low-cost and wide availability of iron salts as well as rice biowaste, combined with the high adsorption capacity, make nZVFe–RSAC an appropriate choice for use in the field of Pb(II) removal from contaminated water. Full article
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Review

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23 pages, 2589 KiB  
Review
A Perspective Review on Microbial Fuel Cells in Treatment and Product Recovery from Wastewater
by Sumira Malik, Shristi Kishore, Archna Dhasmana, Preeti Kumari, Tamoghni Mitra, Vishal Chaudhary, Ritu Kumari, Jutishna Bora, Anuj Ranjan, Tatiana Minkina and Vishnu D. Rajput
Water 2023, 15(2), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15020316 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 12348
Abstract
The treatment of wastewater is an expensive and energy-extensive practice that not only ensures the power generation requirements to sustain the current energy demands of an increasing human population but also aids in the subsequent removal of enormous quantities of wastewater that need [...] Read more.
The treatment of wastewater is an expensive and energy-extensive practice that not only ensures the power generation requirements to sustain the current energy demands of an increasing human population but also aids in the subsequent removal of enormous quantities of wastewater that need to be treated within the environment. Thus, renewable energy source-based wastewater treatment is one of the recently developing techniques to overcome power generation and environmental contamination issues. In wastewater treatment, microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology has demonstrated a promising potential to evolve as a sustainable approach, with the simultaneous recovery of energy and nutrients to produce bioelectricity that harnesses the ability of electrogenic microbes to oxidize organic contaminants present in wastewater. Since traditional wastewater treatment has various limitations, sustainable implementations of MFCs might be a feasible option in wastewater treatment, green electricity production, biohydrogen synthesis, carbon sequestration, and environmentally sustainable sewage treatment. In MFCs, the electrochemical treatment mechanism is based on anodic oxidation and cathodic reduction reactions, which have been considerably improved by the last few decades of study. However, electricity production by MFCs remains a substantial problem for practical implementations owing to the difficulty in balancing yield with overall system upscaling. This review discusses the developments in MFC technologies, including improvements to their structural architecture, integration with different novel biocatalysts and biocathode, anode, and cathode materials, various microbial community interactions and substrates to be used, and the removal of contaminants. Furthermore, it focuses on providing critical insights and analyzing various types, processes, applications, challenges, and futuristic aspects of wastewater treatment-related MFCs and thus sustainable resource recovery. With appropriate planning and further studies, we look forward to the industrialization of MFCs in the near future, with the idea that this will lead to greener fuels and a cleaner environment for all of mankind. Full article
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14 pages, 2407 KiB  
Review
Nanomaterials for Water Remediation: An Efficient Strategy for Prevention of Metal(loid) Hazard
by Jyoti Mathur, Pooja Goswami, Ankita Gupta, Sudhakar Srivastava, Tatiana Minkina, Shengdao Shan and Vishnu D. Rajput
Water 2022, 14(24), 3998; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14243998 - 8 Dec 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3542
Abstract
Different natural and anthropogenic global events and activities such as urban settlements and industrial development have led to a build-up of numerous pollutants in the environment, creating problems for nature and human health. Among the pollutants, metal(loid)s are persistent and ubiquitously present in [...] Read more.
Different natural and anthropogenic global events and activities such as urban settlements and industrial development have led to a build-up of numerous pollutants in the environment, creating problems for nature and human health. Among the pollutants, metal(loid)s are persistent and ubiquitously present in the soil, water, and air. The presence of high concentrations of metal(loid)s in water is of serious concern, as water is a basic necessity of humans and plants. Through irrigation, metal(loid)s enter and accumulate in plants, and subsequently reach humans via food. There is demand for sustainable and practical technologies for tackling the challenge of metal(loid) pollution. Nanotechnology has found its place in diverse fields including cosmetics, sensors, remediation, and medicine. Nanoremediation is an effective, feasible, and sustainable technology for cleaning up water contaminated with metal(loid)s and other chemicals. The versatility of nanomaterials is huge due to their differences in size, shape, surface chemistry, and chemical composition. This review sheds light on different nanoparticles (NPs) used for water remediation and summarizes key recent findings. The successful application of NPs in laboratory studies warrants their potential use in water clean-up from a small to a large scale. Full article
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15 pages, 1699 KiB  
Review
Sustainable Use of Nano-Assisted Remediation for Mitigation of Heavy Metals and Mine Spills
by Neetu Sharma, Gurpreet Singh, Monika Sharma, Saglara Mandzhieva, Tatiana Minkina and Vishnu D. Rajput
Water 2022, 14(23), 3972; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14233972 - 6 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3379
Abstract
Increasing globalization in the last two decades has transformed the environment; hence, the demand for sustainable remediation approaches has also recorded an increasing trend. The varied sources of soil pollution include the application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, industrial discharge, and transformed products [...] Read more.
Increasing globalization in the last two decades has transformed the environment; hence, the demand for sustainable remediation approaches has also recorded an increasing trend. The varied sources of soil pollution include the application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, industrial discharge, and transformed products of these accumulated chemical residues. These processes may hamper the composition and soil ecosystem. Different types of methodologies ranging from physical, chemical, and biological approaches have been exploited to tackle of this challenge. The last decade has observed a significant application of nanotechnology for the treatment and removal of contaminants. Nanomaterial (NMs) research has contributed to a new dimension for the remediation of polluted soils. The use of engineered NMs has not only carried out the remediation of contaminated sites but also has proven useful in combatting the release of soil pollutants. They have paved the way for eco-friendly approaches for the detection of pollutants along with the restoration of polluted sites to their nascent stages, which will also help in increasing soil fertility. Nano-enabled remediation mechanisms require extensive field and target-specific research to deliver the required output. This review focused on recent trends, emphasized the areas for further improvement, and intended to understand the requirement of an interdisciplinary approach to utilize nanotechnology for multitasking remediation approaches comprising different contaminants. Full article
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