Special Issue "T Cell-Mediated Antiviral Immunity"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2019.

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Mehul Suthar Website E-Mail
Department of Pediatrics, Emory School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
Phone: 404-727-3052
Interests: flavivirus biology and pathogenesis; innate immune signaling; T cell immunity to virus infection and placental biology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Pattern recognition receptor signalling (TLRs, RLRs, CLRs, and NLRs) can recognize viral pathogen associated molecular patterns and can trigger a robust type-I interferon (IFN) and pro-inflammatory cytokine response that functions to control virus replication and limit spread within a host. Antigen presenting cells (e.g., dendritic cells) provide a critical link between these innate immune signals and priming T-cell responses that function to clear virus infection and provide protection against re-infection. Over the past 20 years, there have been tremendous research efforts to understand the underlying mechanisms that regulate both dendritic cell responses and the development of effector and memory antiviral T-cell responses during virus infection. These efforts have culminated in identifying key transcription factors, signaling components, and cytokines that ultimately determine T-cell fate and function. Recent technological advances and the use of integrated multi-omics-based approaches (e.g., epigenomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic, and lipidomic) are providing an unprecedented and global assessment of T-cell responses during virus infection.  In this Special Issue, we will focus on the recent discoveries related to the mechanisms and pathways that determine T-cell fate and function, control T-cell exhaustion, promote tissue-resident memory T-cell responses, and promote viral clearance during virus infection. We will also highlight recent efforts to develop effective T cell-inducing vaccines against viral diseases.

Dr. Mehul Suthar
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • metabolism
  • tissue-resident memory T cells
  • viral immunology
  • intravital microscopy
  • emgering viruses
  • vaccine-induced T cell immunity
  • regulatory T cells
  • CD4+ T cells
  • CD8+ T cells
  • immunopathology

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Contribute to the Production of IFN-β via TLR7-MyD88-Dependent Pathway and CTL Priming during Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection
Viruses 2019, 11(8), 730; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11080730 - 08 Aug 2019
Abstract
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of respiratory viral infection in infants and children, yet little is known about the antiviral response of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) to RSV infection. We tracked the cellular source of interferon-β using interferon-β/yellow fluorescent protein [...] Read more.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of respiratory viral infection in infants and children, yet little is known about the antiviral response of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) to RSV infection. We tracked the cellular source of interferon-β using interferon-β/yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) reporter mice and identified the signaling pathway activated by RSV that induces type I interferon production in pDCs and DCs. Results from in vitro analyses of RSV-stimulated bone marrow cells revealed that RSV induces interferon-β production in both pDCs and DCs. Kinetic analyses of interferon-β-producing cells in RSV-infected lung cells in vivo indicated that pDCs are rapidly recruited to sites of inflammation during infection. These cells produced interferon-β via the TLR7-MyD88-mediated pathway and IFNα1R-mediated pathway rather than the MAVS-mediated pathway. Moreover, pDC-ablated mice exhibited decreased interferon-γ production and the antigen specificity of CD8+ T cells. Collectively, these data indicate that pDCs play pivotal roles in cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses and are one of producers of type I interferon during RSV infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue T Cell-Mediated Antiviral Immunity)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
To Go or Stay: The Development, Benefit, and Detriment of Tissue-Resident Memory CD8 T Cells during Central Nervous System Viral Infections
Viruses 2019, 11(9), 842; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090842 - 11 Sep 2019
Abstract
CD8 T cells coordinate immune defenses against viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS). Virus-specific CD8 T cells infiltrate the CNS and differentiate into brain-resident memory CD8 T cells (CD8 bTRM). CD8 bTRM are characterized by a lack of [...] Read more.
CD8 T cells coordinate immune defenses against viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS). Virus-specific CD8 T cells infiltrate the CNS and differentiate into brain-resident memory CD8 T cells (CD8 bTRM). CD8 bTRM are characterized by a lack of recirculation and expression of phenotypes and transcriptomes distinct from other CD8 T cell memory subsets. CD8 bTRM have been shown to provide durable, autonomous protection against viral reinfection and the resurgence of latent viral infections. CD8 T cells have also been implicated in the development of neural damage following viral infection, which demonstrates that the infiltration of CD8 T cells into the brain can also be pathogenic. In this review, we will explore the residency and maintenance requirements for CD8 bTRM and discuss their roles in controlling viral infections of the brain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue T Cell-Mediated Antiviral Immunity)
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Open AccessReview
Insights into Thymus Development and Viral Thymic Infections
Viruses 2019, 11(9), 836; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090836 - 09 Sep 2019
Abstract
T-cell development in the thymus is a complex and highly regulated process, involving a wide variety of cells and molecules which orchestrate thymocyte maturation into either CD4+ or CD8+ single-positive (SP) T cells. Here, we briefly review the process regulating T-cell [...] Read more.
T-cell development in the thymus is a complex and highly regulated process, involving a wide variety of cells and molecules which orchestrate thymocyte maturation into either CD4+ or CD8+ single-positive (SP) T cells. Here, we briefly review the process regulating T-cell differentiation, which includes the latest advances in this field. In particular, we highlight how, starting from a pool of hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow, the sequential action of transcriptional factors and cytokines dictates the proliferation, restriction of lineage potential, T-cell antigen receptors (TCR) gene rearrangements, and selection events on the T-cell progenitors, ultimately leading to the generation of mature T cells. Moreover, this review discusses paradigmatic examples of viral infections affecting the thymus that, by inducing functional changes within this lymphoid gland, consequently influence the behavior of peripheral mature T-lymphocytes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue T Cell-Mediated Antiviral Immunity)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: To go or stay: the development, benefit, and detriment of tissue-resident memory CD8 T cells during central nervous system viral infections

Authors: Taryn Mockus, Heather Ren, Shwetank, Aron Lukacher

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