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Open AccessArticle

Systematic Identification of Host Immune Key Factors Influencing Viral Infection in PBL of ALV-J Infected SPF Chicken

by Manman Dai 1,2,*, Shibing Li 1, Keyi Shi 1, Jiayu Liao 1, Hui Sun 1 and Ming Liao 1,2,*
College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China
National and Regional Joint Engineering Laboratory for Medicament of Zoonosis Prevention and Control, Guangzhou 510642, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2020, 12(1), 114;
Received: 19 December 2019 / Revised: 6 January 2020 / Accepted: 9 January 2020 / Published: 16 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue T Cell-Mediated Antiviral Immunity)
Although research related to avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) has lasted for more than a century, the systematic identification of host immune key factors against ALV-J infection has not been reported. In this study, we establish an infection model in which four-week-old SPF chickens are infected with ALV-J strain CHN06, after which the host immune response is detected. We found that the expression of two antiviral interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) (Mx1 and IFIT5) were increased in ALV-J infected peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). A significant CD8+ T cell response induced by ALV-J appeared as early as seven days post-infection (DPI), and humoral immunity starting from 21 DPI differed greatly in the time scale of induction level. Meanwhile, the ALV-J viremia was significantly decreased before antibody production at 14 DPI, and eliminated at 21 DPI under a very low antibody level. The up-regulated CD8+ T cell in the thymus (14DPI) and PBL (7 DPI and 21 DPI) was detected, indicating that the thymus may provide the output of CD8+ T cell to PBL, which was related to virus clearance. Besides, up-regulated chemokine CXCLi1 at 7 DPI in PBL was observed, which may be related to the migration of the CD8+ T cell from the thymus to PBL. More importantly, the CD8 high+ T cell response of the CD8αβ phenotype may produce granzyme K, NK lysin, or IFN-γ for clearing viruses. These findings provide novel insights and direction for developing effective ALV-J vaccines.
Keywords: chicken; ALV-J; CD8+ T cell response; phenotype; PBL chicken; ALV-J; CD8+ T cell response; phenotype; PBL
MDPI and ACS Style

Dai, M.; Li, S.; Shi, K.; Liao, J.; Sun, H.; Liao, M. Systematic Identification of Host Immune Key Factors Influencing Viral Infection in PBL of ALV-J Infected SPF Chicken. Viruses 2020, 12, 114.

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