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Open AccessArticle

Systematic Identification of Host Immune Key Factors Influencing Viral Infection in PBL of ALV-J Infected SPF Chicken

by Manman Dai 1,2,*, Shibing Li 1, Keyi Shi 1, Jiayu Liao 1, Hui Sun 1 and Ming Liao 1,2,*
1
College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China
2
National and Regional Joint Engineering Laboratory for Medicament of Zoonosis Prevention and Control, Guangzhou 510642, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2020, 12(1), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12010114
Received: 19 December 2019 / Revised: 6 January 2020 / Accepted: 9 January 2020 / Published: 16 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue T Cell-Mediated Antiviral Immunity)
Although research related to avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) has lasted for more than a century, the systematic identification of host immune key factors against ALV-J infection has not been reported. In this study, we establish an infection model in which four-week-old SPF chickens are infected with ALV-J strain CHN06, after which the host immune response is detected. We found that the expression of two antiviral interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) (Mx1 and IFIT5) were increased in ALV-J infected peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). A significant CD8+ T cell response induced by ALV-J appeared as early as seven days post-infection (DPI), and humoral immunity starting from 21 DPI differed greatly in the time scale of induction level. Meanwhile, the ALV-J viremia was significantly decreased before antibody production at 14 DPI, and eliminated at 21 DPI under a very low antibody level. The up-regulated CD8+ T cell in the thymus (14DPI) and PBL (7 DPI and 21 DPI) was detected, indicating that the thymus may provide the output of CD8+ T cell to PBL, which was related to virus clearance. Besides, up-regulated chemokine CXCLi1 at 7 DPI in PBL was observed, which may be related to the migration of the CD8+ T cell from the thymus to PBL. More importantly, the CD8 high+ T cell response of the CD8αβ phenotype may produce granzyme K, NK lysin, or IFN-γ for clearing viruses. These findings provide novel insights and direction for developing effective ALV-J vaccines.
Keywords: chicken; ALV-J; CD8+ T cell response; phenotype; PBL chicken; ALV-J; CD8+ T cell response; phenotype; PBL
MDPI and ACS Style

Dai, M.; Li, S.; Shi, K.; Liao, J.; Sun, H.; Liao, M. Systematic Identification of Host Immune Key Factors Influencing Viral Infection in PBL of ALV-J Infected SPF Chicken. Viruses 2020, 12, 114.

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