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Insights into Thymus Development and Viral Thymic Infections

1
Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University “Magna Graecia” of Catanzaro, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy
2
Institute for Endocrinology and Oncology, National Research Council, 80131 Napoli, Italy
3
Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnologies, University of Napoli “Federico II”, 80131 Napoli, Italy
4
Department of Public Health, University of Napoli “Federico II”, 80131 Naples, Italy
5
Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry, University of Salerno, 84081 Salerno, Italy
6
Department of Health Sciences, University “Magna Graecia” of Catanzaro, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(9), 836; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090836
Received: 14 August 2019 / Revised: 3 September 2019 / Accepted: 6 September 2019 / Published: 9 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue T Cell-Mediated Antiviral Immunity)
T-cell development in the thymus is a complex and highly regulated process, involving a wide variety of cells and molecules which orchestrate thymocyte maturation into either CD4+ or CD8+ single-positive (SP) T cells. Here, we briefly review the process regulating T-cell differentiation, which includes the latest advances in this field. In particular, we highlight how, starting from a pool of hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow, the sequential action of transcriptional factors and cytokines dictates the proliferation, restriction of lineage potential, T-cell antigen receptors (TCR) gene rearrangements, and selection events on the T-cell progenitors, ultimately leading to the generation of mature T cells. Moreover, this review discusses paradigmatic examples of viral infections affecting the thymus that, by inducing functional changes within this lymphoid gland, consequently influence the behavior of peripheral mature T-lymphocytes. View Full-Text
Keywords: thymus; viral infections; T-cell development thymus; viral infections; T-cell development
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Albano, F.; Vecchio, E.; Renna, M.; Iaccino, E.; Mimmi, S.; Caiazza, C.; Arcucci, A.; Avagliano, A.; Pagliara, V.; Donato, G.; Palmieri, C.; Mallardo, M.; Quinto, I.; Fiume, G. Insights into Thymus Development and Viral Thymic Infections. Viruses 2019, 11, 836.

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