Recent Advances of Avian Viruses Research

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2024 | Viewed by 8380

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
1. Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung City, Taiwan
2. The iEGG and Animal Biotechnology Center, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan
Interests: avian virology; virus-like particles (VLPs); avian disease; cytokines
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Due to the outbreaks of several epidemics caused by numerous avian viruses, the threat of pathogenic avian diseases to human health and the food industry has become an emergent issue within the framework of One Health. Recently, experts around the world have developed various novel strategies, innovative approaches, and state-of-the-art techniques devoted to studying different aspects of these important avian viruses. The major mission for these excellent research teams is to maintain the health of humans and birds to ensure the safety of public health and a sufficient food supply for our community. Therefore, the accumulated knowledge about the molecular virology, viral immunology, viral pathogenesis, epidemiology, antivirals, novel vaccines, and applications of avian viral vectors established by these expert research groups across the world has advanced the global understanding of these pathogens.

Thus, the submission of research articles, short communications, and review papers on all research aspects of avian viruses is very welcome for this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Chi-Young Wang
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • avian influenza virus
  • infectious bronchitis virus
  • infectious bursal disease virus
  • infectious laryngotracheitis virus
  • Marek's disease virus
  • avian leukosis virus
  • avian polyomavirus
  • avian bornavirus
  • avian circovirus
  • avian reovirus
  • avian poxvirus
  • beak and feather disease virus
  • parvovirus
  • avian diseases

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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19 pages, 9406 KiB  
Article
Surveillance of Parrot Bornavirus in Taiwan Captive Psittaciformes
by Brian Harvey Avanceña Villanueva, Jin-Yang Chen, Pei-Ju Lin, Hoang Minh, Van Phan Le, Yu-Chang Tyan, Jen-Pin Chuang and Kuo-Pin Chuang
Viruses 2024, 16(5), 805; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16050805 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 273
Abstract
Parrot bornavirus (PaBV) is an infectious disease linked with proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) with severe digestive and neurological symptoms affecting psittacine birds. Despite its detection in 2008, PaBV prevalence in Taiwan remains unexplored. Taiwan is one of the leading psittacine bird breeders; hence, [...] Read more.
Parrot bornavirus (PaBV) is an infectious disease linked with proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) with severe digestive and neurological symptoms affecting psittacine birds. Despite its detection in 2008, PaBV prevalence in Taiwan remains unexplored. Taiwan is one of the leading psittacine bird breeders; hence, understanding the distribution of PaBV aids preventive measures in controlling spread, early disease recognition, epidemiology, and transmission dynamics. Here, we aimed to detect the prevalence rate of PaBV and assess its genetic variation in Taiwan. Among 124 psittacine birds tested, fifty-seven were PaBV-positive, a prevalence rate of 45.97%. Most of the PaBV infections were adult psittacine birds, with five birds surviving the infection, resulting in a low survival rate (8.77%). A year of parrot bornavirus surveillance presented a seasonal pattern, with peak PaBV infection rates occurring in the spring season (68%) and the least in the summer season (25%), indicating the occurrence of PaBV infections linked to seasonal factors. Histopathology reveals severe meningoencephalitis in the cerebellum and dilated cardiomyopathy of the heart in psittacine birds who suffered from PDD. Three brain samples underwent X/P gene sequencing, revealing PaBV-2 and PaBV-4 viral genotypes through phylogenetic analyses. This underscores the necessity for ongoing PaBV surveillance and further investigation into its pathophysiology and transmission routes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances of Avian Viruses Research)
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32 pages, 8640 KiB  
Article
Host Immune Response Modulation in Avian Coronavirus Infection: Tracheal Transcriptome Profiling In Vitro and In Vivo
by Kelsey O’Dowd, Ishara M. Isham, Safieh Vatandour, Martine Boulianne, Charles M. Dozois, Carl A. Gagnon, Neda Barjesteh and Mohamed Faizal Abdul-Careem
Viruses 2024, 16(4), 605; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16040605 - 14 Apr 2024
Viewed by 752
Abstract
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a highly contagious Gammacoronavirus causing moderate to severe respiratory infection in chickens. Understanding the initial antiviral response in the respiratory mucosa is crucial for controlling viral spread. We aimed to characterize the impact of IBV Delmarva (DMV)/1639 and [...] Read more.
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a highly contagious Gammacoronavirus causing moderate to severe respiratory infection in chickens. Understanding the initial antiviral response in the respiratory mucosa is crucial for controlling viral spread. We aimed to characterize the impact of IBV Delmarva (DMV)/1639 and IBV Massachusetts (Mass) 41 at the primary site of infection, namely, in chicken tracheal epithelial cells (cTECs) in vitro and the trachea in vivo. We hypothesized that some elements of the induced antiviral responses are distinct in both infection models. We inoculated cTECs and infected young specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens with IBV DMV/1639 or IBV Mass41, along with mock-inoculated controls, and studied the transcriptome using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) at 3 and 18 h post-infection (hpi) for cTECs and at 4 and 11 days post-infection (dpi) in the trachea. We showed that IBV DMV/1639 and IBV Mass41 replicate in cTECs in vitro and the trachea in vivo, inducing host mRNA expression profiles that are strain- and time-dependent. We demonstrated the different gene expression patterns between in vitro and in vivo tracheal IBV infection. Ultimately, characterizing host–pathogen interactions with various IBV strains reveals potential mechanisms for inducing and modulating the immune response during IBV infection in the chicken trachea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances of Avian Viruses Research)
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11 pages, 2456 KiB  
Communication
An Amplicon-Based Application for the Whole-Genome Sequencing of GI-19 Lineage Infectious Bronchitis Virus Directly from Clinical Samples
by Hoang Duc Le, Tuyet Ngan Thai, Jae-Kyeom Kim, Hye-Soon Song, Moon Her, Xuan Thach Tran, Ji-Ye Kim and Hye-Ryoung Kim
Viruses 2024, 16(4), 515; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16040515 - 27 Mar 2024
Viewed by 813
Abstract
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes a highly contagious respiratory disease in chickens, leading to significant economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. IBV exhibits a high mutation rate, resulting in the continuous emergence of new variants and strains. A complete genome analysis of [...] Read more.
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes a highly contagious respiratory disease in chickens, leading to significant economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. IBV exhibits a high mutation rate, resulting in the continuous emergence of new variants and strains. A complete genome analysis of IBV is crucial for understanding its characteristics. However, it is challenging to obtain whole-genome sequences from IBV-infected clinical samples due to the low abundance of IBV relative to the host genome. Here, we present a novel approach employing next-generation sequencing (NGS) to directly sequence the complete genome of IBV. Through in silico analysis, six primer pairs were designed to match various genotypes, including the GI-19 lineage of IBV. The primer sets successfully amplified six overlapping fragments by long-range PCR and the size of the amplicons ranged from 3.7 to 6.4 kb, resulting in full coverage of the IBV genome. Furthermore, utilizing Illumina sequencing, we obtained the complete genome sequences of two strains belonging to the GI-19 lineage (QX genotype) from clinical samples, with 100% coverage rates, over 1000 × mean depth coverage, and a high percentage of mapped reads to the reference genomes (96.63% and 97.66%). The reported method significantly improves the whole-genome sequencing of IBVs from clinical samples; thus, it can improve understanding of the epidemiology and evolution of IBVs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances of Avian Viruses Research)
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15 pages, 5802 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Chicken IFITM3 Gene Expression and Its Effect on Avian Reovirus Replication
by Hongyu Ren, Sheng Wang, Zhixun Xie, Lijun Wan, Liji Xie, Sisi Luo, Meng Li, Zhiqin Xie, Qing Fan, Tingting Zeng, Yanfang Zhang, Minxiu Zhang, Jiaoling Huang and You Wei
Viruses 2024, 16(3), 330; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16030330 - 21 Feb 2024
Viewed by 922
Abstract
Interferon-inducible transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) is an antiviral factor that plays an important role in the host innate immune response against viruses. Previous studies have shown that IFITM3 is upregulated in various tissues and organs after avian reovirus (ARV) infection, which suggests that [...] Read more.
Interferon-inducible transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) is an antiviral factor that plays an important role in the host innate immune response against viruses. Previous studies have shown that IFITM3 is upregulated in various tissues and organs after avian reovirus (ARV) infection, which suggests that IFITM3 may be involved in the antiviral response after ARV infection. In this study, the chicken IFITM3 gene was cloned and analyzed bioinformatically. Then, the role of chicken IFITM3 in ARV infection was further explored. The results showed that the molecular weight of the chicken IFITM3 protein was approximately 13 kDa. This protein was found to be localized mainly in the cytoplasm, and its protein structure contained the CD225 domain. The homology analysis and phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the IFITM3 genes of different species exhibited great variation during genetic evolution, and chicken IFITM3 shared the highest homology with that of Anas platyrhynchos and displayed relatively low homology with those of birds such as Anser cygnoides and Serinus canaria. An analysis of the distribution of chicken IFITM3 in tissues and organs revealed that the IFITM3 gene was expressed at its highest level in the intestine and in large quantities in immune organs, such as the bursa of Fabricius, thymus and spleen. Further studies showed that the overexpression of IFITM3 in chicken embryo fibroblasts (DF-1) could inhibit the replication of ARV, whereas the inhibition of IFITM3 expression in DF-1 cells promoted ARV replication. In addition, chicken IFITM3 may exert negative feedback regulatory effects on the expression of TBK1, IFN-γ and IRF1 during ARV infection, and it is speculated that IFITM3 may participate in the innate immune response after ARV infection by negatively regulating the expression of TBK1, IFN-γ and IRF1. The results of this study further enrich the understanding of the role and function of chicken IFITM3 in ARV infection and provide a theoretical basis for an in-depth understanding of the antiviral mechanism of host resistance to ARV infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances of Avian Viruses Research)
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14 pages, 1345 KiB  
Article
First Detection and Molecular Characterization of Novel Variant Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (Genotype A2dB1b) in Egypt
by Matteo Legnardi, Francesca Poletto, Shaimaa Talaat, Karim Selim, Mahmoud K. Moawad, Giovanni Franzo, Claudia Maria Tucciarone, Mattia Cecchinato and Hesham Sultan
Viruses 2023, 15(12), 2388; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15122388 - 7 Dec 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1365
Abstract
Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an immunosuppressive disease causing significant damage to the poultry industry worldwide. Its etiological agent is infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), a highly resistant RNA virus whose genetic variability considerably affects disease manifestation, diagnosis and control, primarily pursued by [...] Read more.
Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an immunosuppressive disease causing significant damage to the poultry industry worldwide. Its etiological agent is infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), a highly resistant RNA virus whose genetic variability considerably affects disease manifestation, diagnosis and control, primarily pursued by vaccination. In Egypt, very virulent strains (genotype A3B2), responsible for typical IBD signs and lesions and high mortality, have historically prevailed. The present molecular survey, however, suggests that a major epidemiological shift might be occurring in the country. Out of twenty-four samples collected in twelve governorates in 2022–2023, seven tested positive for IBDV. Two of them were A3B2 strains related to other very virulent Egyptian isolates, whereas the remaining five were novel variant IBDVs (A2dB1b), reported for the first time outside of Eastern and Southern Asia. This emerging genotype spawned a large-scale epidemic in China during the 2010s, characterized by subclinical IBD with severe bursal atrophy and immunosuppression. Its spread to Egypt is even more alarming considering that, contrary to circulating IBDVs, the protection conferred by available commercial vaccines appears suboptimal. These findings are therefore crucial for guiding monitoring and control efforts and helping to track the spread of novel variant IBDVs, possibly limiting their impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances of Avian Viruses Research)
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19 pages, 3741 KiB  
Article
Transcriptomic and Translatomic Analyses Reveal Insights into the Signaling Pathways of the Innate Immune Response in the Spleens of SPF Chickens Infected with Avian Reovirus
by Sheng Wang, Tengda Huang, Zhixun Xie, Lijun Wan, Hongyu Ren, Tian Wu, Liji Xie, Sisi Luo, Meng Li, Zhiqin Xie, Qing Fan, Jiaoling Huang, Tingting Zeng, Yanfang Zhang, Minxiu Zhang and You Wei
Viruses 2023, 15(12), 2346; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15122346 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 940
Abstract
Avian reovirus (ARV) infection is prevalent in farmed poultry and causes viral arthritis and severe immunosuppression. The spleen plays a very important part in protecting hosts against infectious pathogens. In this research, transcriptome and translatome sequencing technology were combined to investigate the mechanisms [...] Read more.
Avian reovirus (ARV) infection is prevalent in farmed poultry and causes viral arthritis and severe immunosuppression. The spleen plays a very important part in protecting hosts against infectious pathogens. In this research, transcriptome and translatome sequencing technology were combined to investigate the mechanisms of transcriptional and translational regulation in the spleen after ARV infection. On a genome-wide scale, ARV infection can significantly reduce the translation efficiency (TE) of splenic genes. Differentially expressed translational efficiency genes (DTEGs) were identified, including 15 upregulated DTEGs and 396 downregulated DTEGs. These DTEGs were mainly enriched in immune regulation signaling pathways, which indicates that ARV infection reduces the innate immune response in the spleen. In addition, combined analyses revealed that the innate immune response involves the effects of transcriptional and translational regulation. Moreover, we discovered the key gene IL4I1, the most significantly upregulated gene at both the transcriptional and translational levels. Further studies in DF1 cells showed that overexpression of IL4I1 could inhibit the replication of ARV, while inhibiting the expression of endogenous IL4I1 with siRNA promoted the replication of ARV. Overexpression of IL4I1 significantly downregulated the mRNA expression of IFN-β, LGP2, TBK1 and NF-κB; however, the expression of these genes was significantly upregulated after inhibition of IL4I1, suggesting that IL4I1 may be a negative feedback effect of innate immune signaling pathways. In addition, there may be an interaction between IL4I1 and ARV σA protein, and we speculate that the IL4I1 protein plays a regulatory role by interacting with the σA protein. This study not only provides a new perspective on the regulatory mechanisms of the innate immune response after ARV infection but also enriches the knowledge of the host defense mechanisms against ARV invasion and the outcome of ARV evasion of the host’s innate immune response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances of Avian Viruses Research)
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21 pages, 12000 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) Pathogenesis and Host Responses in Young Male and Female Chickens
by Ishara M. Isham, Reham M. Abd-Elsalam, Motamed E. Mahmoud, Shahnas M. Najimudeen, Hiruni A. Ranaweera, Ahmed Ali, Mohamed S. H. Hassan, Susan C. Cork, Ashish Gupta and Mohamed Faizal Abdul-Careem
Viruses 2023, 15(12), 2285; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15122285 - 22 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1256
Abstract
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is an avian coronavirus that causes a disease in chickens known as infectious bronchitis (IB). The pathogenesis of IBV and the host immune responses against it depend on multiple factors such as the IBV variant, breed and age of [...] Read more.
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is an avian coronavirus that causes a disease in chickens known as infectious bronchitis (IB). The pathogenesis of IBV and the host immune responses against it depend on multiple factors such as the IBV variant, breed and age of the chicken, and the environment provided by the management. Since there is limited knowledge about the influence of the sex of chickens in the pathogenesis of IBV, in this study we aim to compare IBV pathogenesis and host immune responses in young male and female chickens. One-week-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) White Leghorn male and female chickens were infected with Canadian Delmarva (DMV)/1639 IBV variant at a dose of 1 × 106 embryo infectious dose (EID)50 by the oculo-nasal route while maintaining uninfected controls, and these chickens were euthanized and sampled 4- and 11-days post-infection (dpi). No significant difference was observed between the infected male and female chickens in IBV shedding, IBV genome load in the trachea, lung, kidney, bursa of Fabricius (BF), thymus, spleen, and cecal tonsils (CT), and IBV-induced lesion in all the examined tissues at both 4 and 11 dpi. In addition, there was no significant difference in the percentage of IBV immune-positive area observed between the infected male and female chickens in all tissues except for the kidney, which expressed an increased level of IBV antigen in infected males compared with females at both 4 and 11 dpi. The percentage of B lymphocytes was not significantly different between infected male and female chickens in all the examined tissues. The percentage of CD8+ T cells was not significantly different between infected male and female chickens in all the examined tissues except in the trachea at 11 dpi, where female chickens had higher recruitment when compared with male chickens. Overall, although most of the findings of this study suggest that the sex of chickens does not play a significant role in the pathogenesis of IBV and the host immune response in young chickens, marginal differences in viral replication and host responses could be observed to indicate that IBV-induced infection in male chickens is more severe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances of Avian Viruses Research)
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Review

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19 pages, 394 KiB  
Review
Antiviral Chemotherapy in Avian Medicine—A Review
by Ines Szotowska and Aleksandra Ledwoń
Viruses 2024, 16(4), 593; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16040593 - 12 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1431
Abstract
This review article describes the current knowledge about the use of antiviral chemotherapeutics in avian species, such as farm poultry and companion birds. Specific therapeutics are described in alphabetical order including classic antiviral drugs, such as acyclovir, abacavir, adefovir, amantadine, didanosine, entecavir, ganciclovir, [...] Read more.
This review article describes the current knowledge about the use of antiviral chemotherapeutics in avian species, such as farm poultry and companion birds. Specific therapeutics are described in alphabetical order including classic antiviral drugs, such as acyclovir, abacavir, adefovir, amantadine, didanosine, entecavir, ganciclovir, interferon, lamivudine, penciclovir, famciclovir, oseltamivir, ribavirin, and zidovudine, repurposed drugs, such as ivermectin and nitazoxanide, which were originally used as antiparasitic drugs, and some others substances showing antiviral activity, such as ampligen, azo derivates, docosanol, fluoroarabinosylpyrimidine nucleosides, and novel peptides. Most of them have only been used for research purposes and are not widely used in clinical practice because of a lack of essential pharmacokinetic and safety data. Suggested future research directions are also highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances of Avian Viruses Research)
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