Special Issue "Comparative Studies of Virally Induced Immunodeficiency in Animals and Humans"

A special issue of Veterinary Sciences (ISSN 2306-7381).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2015).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Ellen (Liz) Sparger
Website
Guest Editor
Department VM Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis 95616, USA
Interests: molecular pathogenesis of feline immunodeficiency virus infection; vaccine development in animal models for HIV-1 AIDS; use of cytokines and TLR ligands as vaccine adjuvants; tumor immunology in companion animal cancer
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Jane Sykes
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis 95616, USA

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Early studies of clusters of human patients afflicted with opportunistic infections beginning in 1981 resulted in the recognition of a new syndrome designated as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Identification of the retrovirus human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) as the etiologic agent of AIDS was facilitated by knowledge at the time of animal retroviruses including feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and murine leukemia virus (MuLV).  Subsequent characterization and investigations of more closely related animal retroviruses such as simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) have made a substantial impact on our understanding of HIV-1 pathogenesis and vaccine development. Moreover, SIV and FIV research continue to contribute significantly to our understanding of the nonhuman primate (NHP) and feline immune systems by characterizing immunomodulatory mechanisms both unique and shared with humans.

Original manuscripts that address mechanisms of virally induced acquired immunodeficiency (HIV, SIV, and FIV) across different species including NHP, companion animals, and man, are solicited for this special issue. Studies that use innovative or novel technologies to examine virological mechanisms or host pathogen interactions are particularly encouraged for submission.

Dr. Ellen (Liz) Sparger
Prof. Dr. Jane Sykes
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Veterinary Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


Keywords

  • virally induced immunodeficiency
  • comparative virology
  • animal models
  • comparative lentivirus pathogenesis
  • comparative lentivirus host interactions
  • comparative immunomodulation
  • One Health
  • One Medicine

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Review

Open AccessReview
Efficacy of Antiviral Drugs against Feline Immunodeficiency Virus
Vet. Sci. 2015, 2(4), 456-476; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci2040456 - 18 Dec 2015
Cited by 2
Abstract
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is one of the most common infectious agents affecting cats worldwide .FIV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) share many properties: both are lifelong persistent lentiviruses that are similar genetically and morphologically and both viruses propagate in T-lymphocytes, macrophages, and [...] Read more.
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is one of the most common infectious agents affecting cats worldwide .FIV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) share many properties: both are lifelong persistent lentiviruses that are similar genetically and morphologically and both viruses propagate in T-lymphocytes, macrophages, and neural cells. Experimentally infected cats have measurable immune suppression, which sometimes progresses to an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A transient initial state of infection is followed by a long latent stage with low virus replication and absence of clinical signs. In the terminal stage, both viruses can cause severe immunosuppression. Thus, FIV infection in cats has become an important natural model for studying HIV infection in humans, especially for evaluation of antiviral compounds. Of particular importance for chemotherapeutic studies is the close similarity between the reverse transcriptase (RT) of FIV and HIV, which results in high in vitro susceptibility of FIV to many RT-targeted antiviral compounds used in the treatment of HIV-infected patients. Thus, the aim of this article is to provide an up-to-date review of studies on antiviral treatment of FIV, focusing on commercially available compounds for human or animal use. Full article
Open AccessReview
Comparative Analysis of Tat-Dependent and Tat-Deficient Natural Lentiviruses
Vet. Sci. 2015, 2(4), 293-348; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci2040293 - 29 Sep 2015
Cited by 3
Abstract
The emergence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in infected humans has resulted in a global pandemic that has killed millions. HIV-1 and HIV-2 belong to the lentivirus genus of the Retroviridae family. This genus also includes viruses that [...] Read more.
The emergence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in infected humans has resulted in a global pandemic that has killed millions. HIV-1 and HIV-2 belong to the lentivirus genus of the Retroviridae family. This genus also includes viruses that infect other vertebrate animals, among them caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) and Maedi-Visna virus (MVV), the prototypes of a heterogeneous group of viruses known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs), affecting both goat and sheep worldwide. Despite their long host-SRLV natural history, SRLVs were never found to be responsible for immunodeficiency in contrast to primate lentiviruses. SRLVs only replicate productively in monocytes/macrophages in infected animals but not in CD4+ T cells. The focus of this review is to examine and compare the biological and pathological properties of SRLVs as prototypic Tat-independent lentiviruses with HIV-1 as prototypic Tat-dependent lentiviruses. Results from this analysis will help to improve the understanding of why and how these two prototypic lentiviruses evolved in opposite directions in term of virulence and pathogenicity. Results may also help develop new strategies based on the attenuation of SRLVs to control the highly pathogenic HIV-1 in humans. Full article
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