Vaccines and Emerging/Re-Emerging Virus Diseases

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2022) | Viewed by 3655

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Laboratory of Virology and Biosafety Laboratories, National Institute for Infectious Diseases “Lazzaro Spallanzani” IRCCS, Via Portuense 292, 00149 Rome, Italy
Interests: poxvirus; flavivirus; vruses in the family filoviridae; arenavirus; hepatitis e virus; coronavirus; orthomyxovirus; bunyavirus

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over the past decade, an alarming number of infectious viruses have emerged or re-emerged, presenting great threats to global health and to the economy worldwide. Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers, Lassa fever, Dengue fever, Yellow fever, West Nile fever, Zika, Poxvirus; Flavivirus; Arenavirus; Hepatitis E Virus; Orthomyxovirus; Bunyavirus and Chikungunya vector-borne diseases, Swine flu, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), avian influenza viruses, and the recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are examples of zoonoses that have spread throughout the globe with such a significant impact on public health that the scientific community has been called for a rapid intervention in preventing and treating emerging infections. Vaccination is probably the most effective tool in helping the immune system to activate protective responses against pathogens, reducing morbidity and mortality, as proven by historical records. Under health emergency conditions, new and alternative approaches in vaccine design and development are imperative for a rapid and massive vaccination coverage, to manage a disease outbreak and curtail epidemic spread. This issue offers an update on current vaccination strategies for some emerging/re-emerging viruses and discusses challenges and hurdles to overcome for developing efficacious vaccines against viral diseases.

Dr. Daniele Lapa
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (1 paper)

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Research

24 pages, 8313 KiB  
Article
An Immunoinformatics Approach to Design a Potent Multi-Epitope Vaccine against Asia-1 Genotype of Crimean–Congo Haemorrhagic Fever Virus Using the Structural Glycoproteins as a Target
by Syed Zawar Shah, Basit Jabbar, Muhammad Usman Mirza, Muhammad Waqas, Shahkaar Aziz, Sobia Ahsan Halim, Amjad Ali, Shazia Rafique, Muhammad Idrees, Asaad Khalid, Ashraf N. Abdalla, Ajmal Khan and Ahmed Al-Harrasi
Vaccines 2023, 11(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11010061 - 27 Dec 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3264
Abstract
Crimean–Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF), caused by Crimean–Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), is a disease of worldwide importance (endemic yet not limited to Asia, Middle East, and Africa) and has triggered several outbreaks amounting to a case fatality rate of 10–40% as per the [...] Read more.
Crimean–Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF), caused by Crimean–Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), is a disease of worldwide importance (endemic yet not limited to Asia, Middle East, and Africa) and has triggered several outbreaks amounting to a case fatality rate of 10–40% as per the World Health Organization. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic data revealed that the Asia-1 genotype of CCHFV remained dominant in Pakistan, where 688 confirmed cases were reported between the 2012–2022 period. Currently, no approved vaccine is available to tackle the viral infection. Epitope-based vaccine design has gained significant attention in recent years due to its safety, timeliness, and cost efficiency compared to conventional vaccines. In the present study, we employed a robust immunoinformatics-based approach targeting the structural glycoproteins G1 and G2 of CCHFV (Asia-1 genotype) to design a multi-epitope vaccine construct. Five B-cells and six cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) epitopes were mapped and finalized from G1 and G2 and were fused with suitable linkers (EAAAK, GGGS, AAY, and GPGPG), a PADRE sequence (13 aa), and an adjuvant (50S ribosomal protein L7/L12) to formulate a chimeric vaccine construct. The selected CTL epitopes showed high affinity and stable binding with the binding groove of common human HLA class I molecules (HLA-A*02:01 and HLA-B*44:02) and mouse major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. The chimeric vaccine was predicted to be an antigenic, non-allergenic, and soluble molecule with a suitable physicochemical profile. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation indicated a stable and energetically favourable interaction between the constructed antigen and Toll-like receptors (TLR2, TLR3, and TLR4). Our results demonstrated that innate, adaptive, and humoral immune responses could be elicited upon administration of such a potent muti-epitope vaccine construct. These results could be helpful for an experimental vaccinologist to develop an effective vaccine against the Asia-1 genotype of CCHFV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines and Emerging/Re-Emerging Virus Diseases)
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