Topical Collection "Women Physicists in Astrophysics, Cosmology and Particle Physics"

Editor

Prof. Dr. Norma G. Sanchez
E-Mail Website1 Website2 Website3
Guest Editor
CNRS, International School D. Chalonge – Hector de Vega, 75014 Paris, France
Interests: cosmology; quantum field theory; field theory; general relativity; black holes; quantum physics; gravitational physics; fundamental physics; theoretical astrophysics; astronomy & astrophysics; theoretical physics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

The physical approach to astrophysics, particle physics and cosmology, both in theory and observations, and, in fine, to the understanding of the physics of the Universe allows going deeper into the identification, choice, and formulation of the problems to be solved and into the research programs to be performed, in going to essential and universal or key features, in finding solutions and/or performing innovative discoveries, in understanding and unifying them, finding the cross-correlations when possible, in introducing new knowledge and progresses in the field beyond current comprehension, and in opening new avenues of knowledge in the physics of the Universe.

The aim of this Special Issue is to highlight excellent contributions of women physicists in modern astrophysics, particle physics and cosmology and in the fruitful interplay between these domains. The objective and expected output of this Special Issue is thus double-valued or twofold at least. All fields in modern astrophysics, particle physics and cosmology and their fruitful interplay are included—theory, observations, different methods, models, analytic studies, numerical simulations, as well as high energy astrophysics and black holes in all its mass ranges.

This Special Issue welcomes research papers of high current and fundamental interest as well as review articles in this active field. Contributions to the field from research groups led by women or in which women are the corresponding authors of the manuscripts are strongly encouraged. Co-authors are acceptable, including man co-authors too.

This unique collection will offer, in this way, an exceptional opportunity to unify and bring together new research in this fascinating discipline performed by women physicists over the world, to promote their research, and provide high visibility to them.

We expect that this collection will also allow the apprehension of common universal features or properties within, at the same time, a wide range of diversity.

It is a great pleasure for me to welcome manuscripts to this Special Issue, and I look forward to receiving your manuscripts in this fascinating field.

Prof. Dr. Norma G. Sanchez
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Universe is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Women physicists
  • Astrophysics and cosmology
  • Theory and observations
  • Gravitation and black holes
  • Particle Physics

Published Papers (14 papers)

2022

Jump to: 2021

Article
Galaxy Phase-Space Density Data Preclude That Bose–Einstein Condensate Be the Total Dark Matter
Universe 2022, 8(8), 419; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8080419 - 11 Aug 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 699
Abstract
Ultralight scalars with a typical mass of the order m1022 eV and light scalars forming a Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) exhibit a Jeans length in the kpc scale and were therefore proposed as dark matter (DM) candidates. Our treatment here [...] Read more.
Ultralight scalars with a typical mass of the order m1022 eV and light scalars forming a Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) exhibit a Jeans length in the kpc scale and were therefore proposed as dark matter (DM) candidates. Our treatment here is generic, independent of the particle physics model and applies to all DM BEC, in both in or out of equilibrium situations. Two observed quantities crucially constrain DM in an inescapable way: the average DM density ρDM and the phase-space density Q. The observed values of ρDM and Q in galaxies today constrain both the possibility to form a BEC, and the DM mass m. These two constraints robustly exclude the axion DM that decouples after inflation. Moreover, the value m1022 eV can only be obtained with a number of ultrarelativistic degrees of freedom at decoupling in the trillions, which is impossible for decoupling in the radiation dominated era. In addition, we find for the axion vacuum misalignment scenario that axions are produced strongly out of thermal equilibrium and that the axion mass in such a scenario turns to be 17 orders of magnitude too large to reproduce the observed galactic structures. Moreover, we also consider inhomogenous gravitationally bounded BEC’s supported by the bosonic quantum pressure independently of any particular particle physics scenario. For a typical size R kpc and compact object masses M107M they remarkably lead to the same particle mass m1022 eV as the BEC free-streaming length. However, the phase-space density for the gravitationally bounded BEC’s turns out to be more than sixty orders of magnitude smaller than the galaxy-observed values. We conclude that the BEC cannot be the total DM. The axion can be candidates to be only part of the DM of the universe. Besides, an axion in the mili-eV scale may be a relevant source of dark energy through the zero point cosmological quantum fluctuations. Full article
Article
Search for Dark Higgs Inflation with Curvature Corrections at LHC Experiments
Universe 2022, 8(4), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8040235 - 12 Apr 2022
Viewed by 771
Abstract
We analyse the dark Higgs inflation model with curvature corrections and explore the possibility to test its predictions by the particle physics experiments at LHC. We show that the dark Higgs inflation model with curvature corrections is strongly favoured by the present cosmological [...] Read more.
We analyse the dark Higgs inflation model with curvature corrections and explore the possibility to test its predictions by the particle physics experiments at LHC. We show that the dark Higgs inflation model with curvature corrections is strongly favoured by the present cosmological observation. The cosmological predictions of this model, including the quantum corrections of dark Higgs coupling constants and the uncertainty in estimation of the reheating temperature, lead to the dark Higgs mass mφ=0.919± 0.211 GeV and the mixing angle (at 68% CL). We evaluate the FASER and MAPP-1 experiments reach for dark Higgs inflation mass and mixing angle in the 95% CL cosmological confidence region for an integrated luminosity of 3ab1 at 13 TeV LHC, assuming 100% detection efficiency. We conclude that the dark Higgs inflation model with curvature corrections is a compelling inflation scenario based on particle physics theory favoured by the present cosmological measurements that can leave imprints in the dark Higgs boson searchers at LHC. Full article
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Article
Hidden Conformal Symmetry in Higher Derivative Dynamics for the Kerr Black Hole
Universe 2022, 8(3), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8030155 - 28 Feb 2022
Viewed by 897
Abstract
The Kerr/CFT correspondence provides a holographic description of spinning black holes that exist in our universe and the notion of hidden conformal symmetry allows for a formulation of this correspondence that is away from extremality. In this study, we examined how hidden conformal [...] Read more.
The Kerr/CFT correspondence provides a holographic description of spinning black holes that exist in our universe and the notion of hidden conformal symmetry allows for a formulation of this correspondence that is away from extremality. In this study, we examined how hidden conformal symmetry is manifest when we consider dynamics beyond the Klein–Gordon equation through studying the analytic structure of the higher derivative equations of the motion of a massless probe scalar field on a Kerr background, using the monodromy method. Since such higher derivative dynamics appear in known examples of holographic AdS/logCFT correspondences, we investigated whether or not a Kerr/logCFT correspondence could be possible. Full article
Article
(Un)balanced Holographic Superconductors with Electric and Spin Motive Force Coupling
Universe 2022, 8(2), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8020107 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 569
Abstract
We study holographic phase transitions in (2+1) dimensions that possess interacting phases which result from a direct coupling between the two U(1) gauge fields. This can be interpreted as a non-minimal interaction between the electric and spin motive forces of the dual model. [...] Read more.
We study holographic phase transitions in (2+1) dimensions that possess interacting phases which result from a direct coupling between the two U(1) gauge fields. This can be interpreted as a non-minimal interaction between the electric and spin motive forces of the dual model. We first present a new analytical solution of the Einstein-Maxwell equations that describes a black hole with charge non-equivalent to the sum of the asymptotic charges of the two U(1) gauge fields and briefly discuss formation of uncharged scalar hair on this solution. We then study the formation of charged scalar hair on an uncharged black hole background and discuss the dual description of balanced as well as unbalanced superconductors. Full article
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Article
𝒩 = 1 Curves on Generalized Coulomb Branches of Supersymmetric Gauge Theories
Universe 2022, 8(2), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8020101 - 04 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 579
Abstract
We study the low energy effective dynamics of four-dimensional N=1 superconformal theories on their generalized Coulomb branch. The low energy effective gauge couplings are naturally encoded in algebraic curves X, which we derive for general values of the couplings and [...] Read more.
We study the low energy effective dynamics of four-dimensional N=1 superconformal theories on their generalized Coulomb branch. The low energy effective gauge couplings are naturally encoded in algebraic curves X, which we derive for general values of the couplings and mass deformations. We then recast these IR curves X to the UV or M-theory form C: the punctured Riemann surfaces on which the M5 branes are compactified giving the four-dimensional theories. We find that the UV curves C and their corresponding meromorphic differentials take the same form as those for their mother four-dimensional N=2 theories of class S. They have the same poles, and their residues are functions of all the exactly marginal couplings and the bare mass parameters which we can compute exactly. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2022

Review
A Systematic Approach to Consistent Truncations of Supergravity Theories
Universe 2021, 7(12), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe7120485 - 09 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1058
Abstract
Exceptional generalised geometry is a reformulation of eleven/ten-dimensional supergravity that unifies ordinary diffeomorphisms and gauge transformations of the higher-rank potentials of the theory in an extended notion of diffeormorphisms. These features make exceptional generalised geometry a very powerful tool to study consistent truncations [...] Read more.
Exceptional generalised geometry is a reformulation of eleven/ten-dimensional supergravity that unifies ordinary diffeomorphisms and gauge transformations of the higher-rank potentials of the theory in an extended notion of diffeormorphisms. These features make exceptional generalised geometry a very powerful tool to study consistent truncations of eleven/ten-dimensional supergravities. In this article, we review how the notion of generalised G-structure allows us to derive consistent truncations to supergravity theories in various dimensions and with different amounts of supersymmetry. We discuss in detail the truncations of eleven-dimensional supergravity to N=4 and N=2 supergravity in five dimensions. Full article
Article
Near-AdS2 Spectroscopy: Classifying the Spectrum of Operators and Interactions in N=2 4D Supergravity
Universe 2021, 7(12), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe7120475 - 04 Dec 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1237
Abstract
We describe holographic properties of near-AdS2 spacetimes that arise within spherically symmetric configurations of N=2 4D U(1)4 supergravity for both gauged and ungauged theories. These theories pose a rich space of AdS2×S2 [...] Read more.
We describe holographic properties of near-AdS2 spacetimes that arise within spherically symmetric configurations of N=2 4D U(1)4 supergravity for both gauged and ungauged theories. These theories pose a rich space of AdS2×S2 backgrounds, and their responses in the near-AdS2 region are not universal. In particular, we show that the spectrum of operators is dual to the matter fields, and their cubic interactions are sensitive to properties of the background and the theory it is embedded in. The properties that have the most striking effect are whether the background is supersymmetric or not and if the theory is gauged or ungauged. Interesting effects are due to the appearance of operators with Δ<2, which depending on the background, can lead to, for instance, instabilities or extremal correlators. The resulting differences will have an imprint on the quantum nature of the microstates of near-extremal black holes, reflecting that not all extremal black holes respond equally when kicked away from extremality. Full article
Article
On the Geometric Approach to the Boundary Problem in Supergravity
Universe 2021, 7(12), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe7120463 - 28 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 776
Abstract
We review the geometric superspace approach to the boundary problem in supergravity, retracing the geometric construction of four-dimensional supergravity Lagrangians in the presence of a non-trivial boundary of spacetime. We first focus on pure N=1 and N=2 theories with [...] Read more.
We review the geometric superspace approach to the boundary problem in supergravity, retracing the geometric construction of four-dimensional supergravity Lagrangians in the presence of a non-trivial boundary of spacetime. We first focus on pure N=1 and N=2 theories with negative cosmological constant. Here, the supersymmetry invariance of the action requires the addition of topological (boundary) contributions which generalize at the supersymmetric level the Euler-Gauss-Bonnet term. Moreover, one finds that the boundary values of the super field-strengths are dynamically fixed to constant values, corresponding to the vanishing of the OSp(N|4)-covariant supercurvatures at the boundary. We then consider the case of vanishing cosmological constant where, in the presence of a non-trivial boundary, the inclusion of boundary terms involving additional fields, which behave as auxiliary fields for the bulk theory, allows to restore supersymmetry. In all the cases listed above, the full, supersymmetric Lagrangian can be recast in a MacDowell-Mansouri(-like) form. We then report on the application of the results to specific problems regarding cases where the boundary is located asymptotically, relevant for a holographic analysis. Full article
Review
Particle-in-Cell Simulations of Astrophysical Relativistic Jets
Universe 2021, 7(11), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe7110450 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 799
Abstract
Astrophysical relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts, and pulsars is the main key subject of study in the field of high-energy astrophysics, especially regarding the jet interaction with the interstellar or intergalactic environment. In this work, we review studies of particle-in-cell [...] Read more.
Astrophysical relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts, and pulsars is the main key subject of study in the field of high-energy astrophysics, especially regarding the jet interaction with the interstellar or intergalactic environment. In this work, we review studies of particle-in-cell simulations of relativistic electron–proton (ep+) and electron–positron (e±) jets, and we compare simulations that we have conducted with the relativistic 3D TRISTAN-MPI code for unmagnetized and magnetized jets. We focus on how the magnetic fields affect the evolution of relativistic jets of different compositions, how the jets interact with the ambient media, how the kinetic instabilities such as the Weibel instability, the kinetic Kelvin–Helmholtz instability and the mushroom instability develop, and we discuss possible particle acceleration mechanisms at reconnection sites. Full article
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Review
Superconformal Line Defects in 3D
Universe 2021, 7(9), 348; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe7090348 - 15 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 667
Abstract
We review the recent progress in the study of line defects in three-dimensional Chern–Simons-matter superconformal field theories, notably the ABJM theory. The first part is focused on kinematical defects, supporting a topological sector of the theory. After reviewing the construction of this sector, [...] Read more.
We review the recent progress in the study of line defects in three-dimensional Chern–Simons-matter superconformal field theories, notably the ABJM theory. The first part is focused on kinematical defects, supporting a topological sector of the theory. After reviewing the construction of this sector, we concentrate on the evaluation of topological correlators from the partition function of the mass-deformed ABJM theory and provide evidence on the existence of topological quantum mechanics living on the line. In the second part, we consider the dynamical defects realized as latitude BPS Wilson loops for which an exact evaluation is available in terms of a latitude Matrix Model. We discuss the fundamental relation between these operators, the defect superconformal field theory and bulk physical quantities, such as the Bremsstrahlung function. This relation assigns a privileged role to BPS Wilson operators, which become the meeting point for three exact approaches: localization, integrability and conformal bootstrap. Full article
Article
Dark Matter Sterile Neutrino from Scalar Decays
Universe 2021, 7(8), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe7080309 - 21 Aug 2021
Viewed by 927
Abstract
We place constraints on DM sterile neutrino scalar decay production (SDP) assuming that sterile neutrinos representa fraction from the total Cold Dark Matter energy density. For the cosmological analysis we complement the CMB anisotropy measurements with CMB lensing gravitational potential measurements, that are [...] Read more.
We place constraints on DM sterile neutrino scalar decay production (SDP) assuming that sterile neutrinos representa fraction from the total Cold Dark Matter energy density. For the cosmological analysis we complement the CMB anisotropy measurements with CMB lensing gravitational potential measurements, that are sensitive to the DM distribution to high redshifts and with the cosmic shear data that constrain the gravitational potential at lower redshifts than CMB. We also use the most recent low-redshift BAO measurements that are insensitive to the non-linear effects, providing robust geometrical tests. We show that our datasets have enough sensitivity to constrain the sterile neutrino mass mνs and the mass fraction fS inside the co-moving free-streaming horizon. We find that the best fit value mνs=7.88±0.73 keV (68% CL) is in the parameter space of interest for DM sterile neutrino decay interpretation of the 3.5 keV X-ray line and that fS=0.86±0.07 (68% CL) is in agreement with the upper limit constraint on fS from the X-ray non-detection and Ly-α forest measurements that rejects fS=1 at 3σ. However, we expect that the future BAO and weak lensing surveys, such as EUCLID, will provide much more robust constraints. Full article
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Review
The Swampland Conjectures: A Bridge from Quantum Gravity to Particle Physics
Universe 2021, 7(8), 273; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe7080273 - 28 Jul 2021
Cited by 49 | Viewed by 1393
Abstract
The swampland is the set of seemingly consistent low-energy effective field theories that cannot be consistently coupled to quantum gravity. In this review we cover some of the conjectural properties that effective theories should possess in order not to fall in the swampland, [...] Read more.
The swampland is the set of seemingly consistent low-energy effective field theories that cannot be consistently coupled to quantum gravity. In this review we cover some of the conjectural properties that effective theories should possess in order not to fall in the swampland, and we give an overview of their main applications to particle physics. The latter include predictions on neutrino masses, bounds on the cosmological constant, the electroweak and QCD scales, the photon mass, the Higgs potential and some insights about supersymmetry. Full article
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Review
New Advancements in AdS/CFT in Lower Dimensions
Universe 2021, 7(7), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe7070250 - 19 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 911
Abstract
We review recent developments in the study of the AdS/CFT correspondence in lower dimensions. We start by summarising the classification of AdS3×S2 solutions in massive type IIA supergravity with (0, 4) supersymmetries and the construction of their 2D dual [...] Read more.
We review recent developments in the study of the AdS/CFT correspondence in lower dimensions. We start by summarising the classification of AdS3×S2 solutions in massive type IIA supergravity with (0, 4) supersymmetries and the construction of their 2D dual quiver CFTs. These theories are the seed for further developments that we review next. First, we construct a new class of AdS3 solutions in M-theory that describe M-strings in M5-brane intersections. Second, we generate a new class of AdS2×S3 solutions in massive IIA with four supercharges that we interpret as describing backreacted baryon vertices within the 5D N=1 QFT living in D4-D8 branes. Third, we construct two classes of AdS2 solutions in Type IIB. The first are dual to discrete light-cone quantised quantum mechanics living in null cylinders. The second class is interpreted as dual to backreacted baryon vertices within 4D N=2 QFT living in D3-D7 branes. Explicit dual quiver field theories are given for all classes of solutions. These are used to compute the central charges of the CFTs that are shown to agree with the holographic expressions. Full article
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Review
Two Applications of the Analytic Conformal Bootstrap: A Quick Tour Guide
Universe 2021, 7(7), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe7070247 - 15 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1038
Abstract
We reviewed the recent developments in the study of conformal field theories in generic space time dimensions using the methods of the conformal bootstrap, in its analytic aspect. These techniques are solely based on symmetries, particularly on the analytic structure and in the [...] Read more.
We reviewed the recent developments in the study of conformal field theories in generic space time dimensions using the methods of the conformal bootstrap, in its analytic aspect. These techniques are solely based on symmetries, particularly on the analytic structure and in the associativity of the operator product expansion. We focused on two applications of the analytic conformal bootstrap: the study of the ϵ expansion of the Wilson–Fisher model via the introduction of a dispersion relation and the large N expansion of the maximally supersymmetric Super Yang–Mills theory in four dimensions. Full article
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