Special Issue "Women Physicists in Astrophysics, Cosmology and Particle Physics"

A special issue of Universe (ISSN 2218-1997).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Norma G. Sanchez
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Directrice de l'Ecole Internationale d'Astrophysique "Daniel Chalonge - Héctor de Vega", CNRS, Observatoire de Paris - PSL Université-Sorbonne Université, LERMA 77, avenue Denfert-Rochereau 75014 Paris , France
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The physical approach to astrophysics, particle physics and cosmology, both in theory and observations, and, in fine, to the understanding of the physics of the Universe allows going deeper into the identification, choice, and formulation of the problems to be solved and into the research programs to be performed, in going to essential and universal or key features, in finding solutions and/or performing innovative discoveries, in understanding and unifying them, finding the cross-correlations when possible, in introducing new knowledge and progresses in the field beyond current comprehension, and in opening new avenues of knowledge in the physics of the Universe.

The aim of this Special Issue is to highlight excellent contributions of women physicists in modern astrophysics, particle physics and cosmology and in the fruitful interplay between these domains. The objective and expected output of this Special Issue is thus double-valued or twofold at least. All fields in modern astrophysics, particle physics and cosmology and their fruitful interplay are included—theory, observations, different methods, models, analytic studies, numerical simulations, as well as high energy astrophysics and black holes in all its mass ranges.

This Special Issue welcomes research papers of high current and fundamental interest as well as review articles in this active field. Contributions to the field from research groups led by women or in which women are the corresponding authors of the manuscripts are strongly encouraged. Co-authors are acceptable, including man co-authors too.

This unique collection will offer, in this way, an exceptional opportunity to unify and bring together new research in this fascinating discipline performed by women physicists over the world, to promote their research, and provide high visibility to them.

We expect that this collection will also allow the apprehension of common universal features or properties within, at the same time, a wide range of diversity.

It is a great pleasure for me to welcome manuscripts to this Special Issue, and I look forward to receiving your manuscripts in this fascinating field.

Prof. Dr. Norma G. Sanchez
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Universe is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Women physicists
  • Astrophysics and cosmology
  • Theory and observations
  • Gravitation and black holes
  • Particle Physics

Published Papers (8 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Near-AdS2 Spectroscopy: Classifying the Spectrum of Operators and Interactions in N=2 4D Supergravity
Universe 2021, 7(12), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe7120475 (registering DOI) - 04 Dec 2021
Viewed by 110
Abstract
We describe holographic properties of near-AdS2 spacetimes that arise within spherically symmetric configurations of N=2 4D U(1)4 supergravity for both gauged and ungauged theories. These theories pose a rich space of AdS2×S2 [...] Read more.
We describe holographic properties of near-AdS2 spacetimes that arise within spherically symmetric configurations of N=2 4D U(1)4 supergravity for both gauged and ungauged theories. These theories pose a rich space of AdS2×S2 backgrounds, and their responses in the near-AdS2 region are not universal. In particular, we show that the spectrum of operators is dual to the matter fields, and their cubic interactions are sensitive to properties of the background and the theory it is embedded in. The properties that have the most striking effect are whether the background is supersymmetric or not and if the theory is gauged or ungauged. Interesting effects are due to the appearance of operators with Δ<2, which depending on the background, can lead to, for instance, instabilities or extremal correlators. The resulting differences will have an imprint on the quantum nature of the microstates of near-extremal black holes, reflecting that not all extremal black holes respond equally when kicked away from extremality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women Physicists in Astrophysics, Cosmology and Particle Physics)
Article
On the Geometric Approach to the Boundary Problem in Supergravity
Universe 2021, 7(12), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe7120463 - 28 Nov 2021
Viewed by 190
Abstract
We review the geometric superspace approach to the boundary problem in supergravity, retracing the geometric construction of four-dimensional supergravity Lagrangians in the presence of a non-trivial boundary of spacetime. We first focus on pure N=1 and N=2 theories with [...] Read more.
We review the geometric superspace approach to the boundary problem in supergravity, retracing the geometric construction of four-dimensional supergravity Lagrangians in the presence of a non-trivial boundary of spacetime. We first focus on pure N=1 and N=2 theories with negative cosmological constant. Here, the supersymmetry invariance of the action requires the addition of topological (boundary) contributions which generalize at the supersymmetric level the Euler-Gauss-Bonnet term. Moreover, one finds that the boundary values of the super field-strengths are dynamically fixed to constant values, corresponding to the vanishing of the OSp(N|4)-covariant supercurvatures at the boundary. We then consider the case of vanishing cosmological constant where, in the presence of a non-trivial boundary, the inclusion of boundary terms involving additional fields, which behave as auxiliary fields for the bulk theory, allows to restore supersymmetry. In all the cases listed above, the full, supersymmetric Lagrangian can be recast in a MacDowell-Mansouri(-like) form. We then report on the application of the results to specific problems regarding cases where the boundary is located asymptotically, relevant for a holographic analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women Physicists in Astrophysics, Cosmology and Particle Physics)
Article
Dark Matter Sterile Neutrino from Scalar Decays
Universe 2021, 7(8), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe7080309 - 21 Aug 2021
Viewed by 418
Abstract
We place constraints on DM sterile neutrino scalar decay production (SDP) assuming that sterile neutrinos representa fraction from the total Cold Dark Matter energy density. For the cosmological analysis we complement the CMB anisotropy measurements with CMB lensing gravitational potential measurements, that are [...] Read more.
We place constraints on DM sterile neutrino scalar decay production (SDP) assuming that sterile neutrinos representa fraction from the total Cold Dark Matter energy density. For the cosmological analysis we complement the CMB anisotropy measurements with CMB lensing gravitational potential measurements, that are sensitive to the DM distribution to high redshifts and with the cosmic shear data that constrain the gravitational potential at lower redshifts than CMB. We also use the most recent low-redshift BAO measurements that are insensitive to the non-linear effects, providing robust geometrical tests. We show that our datasets have enough sensitivity to constrain the sterile neutrino mass mνs and the mass fraction fS inside the co-moving free-streaming horizon. We find that the best fit value mνs=7.88±0.73 keV (68% CL) is in the parameter space of interest for DM sterile neutrino decay interpretation of the 3.5 keV X-ray line and that fS=0.86±0.07 (68% CL) is in agreement with the upper limit constraint on fS from the X-ray non-detection and Ly-α forest measurements that rejects fS=1 at 3σ. However, we expect that the future BAO and weak lensing surveys, such as EUCLID, will provide much more robust constraints. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women Physicists in Astrophysics, Cosmology and Particle Physics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Particle-in-Cell Simulations of Astrophysical Relativistic Jets
Universe 2021, 7(11), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe7110450 - 19 Nov 2021
Viewed by 186
Abstract
Astrophysical relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts, and pulsars is the main key subject of study in the field of high-energy astrophysics, especially regarding the jet interaction with the interstellar or intergalactic environment. In this work, we review studies of particle-in-cell [...] Read more.
Astrophysical relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts, and pulsars is the main key subject of study in the field of high-energy astrophysics, especially regarding the jet interaction with the interstellar or intergalactic environment. In this work, we review studies of particle-in-cell simulations of relativistic electron–proton (ep+) and electron–positron (e±) jets, and we compare simulations that we have conducted with the relativistic 3D TRISTAN-MPI code for unmagnetized and magnetized jets. We focus on how the magnetic fields affect the evolution of relativistic jets of different compositions, how the jets interact with the ambient media, how the kinetic instabilities such as the Weibel instability, the kinetic Kelvin–Helmholtz instability and the mushroom instability develop, and we discuss possible particle acceleration mechanisms at reconnection sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women Physicists in Astrophysics, Cosmology and Particle Physics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Superconformal Line Defects in 3D
Universe 2021, 7(9), 348; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe7090348 - 15 Sep 2021
Viewed by 313
Abstract
We review the recent progress in the study of line defects in three-dimensional Chern–Simons-matter superconformal field theories, notably the ABJM theory. The first part is focused on kinematical defects, supporting a topological sector of the theory. After reviewing the construction of this sector, [...] Read more.
We review the recent progress in the study of line defects in three-dimensional Chern–Simons-matter superconformal field theories, notably the ABJM theory. The first part is focused on kinematical defects, supporting a topological sector of the theory. After reviewing the construction of this sector, we concentrate on the evaluation of topological correlators from the partition function of the mass-deformed ABJM theory and provide evidence on the existence of topological quantum mechanics living on the line. In the second part, we consider the dynamical defects realized as latitude BPS Wilson loops for which an exact evaluation is available in terms of a latitude Matrix Model. We discuss the fundamental relation between these operators, the defect superconformal field theory and bulk physical quantities, such as the Bremsstrahlung function. This relation assigns a privileged role to BPS Wilson operators, which become the meeting point for three exact approaches: localization, integrability and conformal bootstrap. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women Physicists in Astrophysics, Cosmology and Particle Physics)
Review
The Swampland Conjectures: A Bridge from Quantum Gravity to Particle Physics
Universe 2021, 7(8), 273; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe7080273 - 28 Jul 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 538
Abstract
The swampland is the set of seemingly consistent low-energy effective field theories that cannot be consistently coupled to quantum gravity. In this review we cover some of the conjectural properties that effective theories should possess in order not to fall in the swampland, [...] Read more.
The swampland is the set of seemingly consistent low-energy effective field theories that cannot be consistently coupled to quantum gravity. In this review we cover some of the conjectural properties that effective theories should possess in order not to fall in the swampland, and we give an overview of their main applications to particle physics. The latter include predictions on neutrino masses, bounds on the cosmological constant, the electroweak and QCD scales, the photon mass, the Higgs potential and some insights about supersymmetry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women Physicists in Astrophysics, Cosmology and Particle Physics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
New Advancements in AdS/CFT in Lower Dimensions
Universe 2021, 7(7), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe7070250 - 19 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 392
Abstract
We review recent developments in the study of the AdS/CFT correspondence in lower dimensions. We start by summarising the classification of AdS3×S2 solutions in massive type IIA supergravity with (0, 4) supersymmetries and the construction of their 2D dual [...] Read more.
We review recent developments in the study of the AdS/CFT correspondence in lower dimensions. We start by summarising the classification of AdS3×S2 solutions in massive type IIA supergravity with (0, 4) supersymmetries and the construction of their 2D dual quiver CFTs. These theories are the seed for further developments that we review next. First, we construct a new class of AdS3 solutions in M-theory that describe M-strings in M5-brane intersections. Second, we generate a new class of AdS2×S3 solutions in massive IIA with four supercharges that we interpret as describing backreacted baryon vertices within the 5D N=1 QFT living in D4-D8 branes. Third, we construct two classes of AdS2 solutions in Type IIB. The first are dual to discrete light-cone quantised quantum mechanics living in null cylinders. The second class is interpreted as dual to backreacted baryon vertices within 4D N=2 QFT living in D3-D7 branes. Explicit dual quiver field theories are given for all classes of solutions. These are used to compute the central charges of the CFTs that are shown to agree with the holographic expressions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women Physicists in Astrophysics, Cosmology and Particle Physics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Two Applications of the Analytic Conformal Bootstrap: A Quick Tour Guide
Universe 2021, 7(7), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe7070247 - 15 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 491
Abstract
We reviewed the recent developments in the study of conformal field theories in generic space time dimensions using the methods of the conformal bootstrap, in its analytic aspect. These techniques are solely based on symmetries, particularly on the analytic structure and in the [...] Read more.
We reviewed the recent developments in the study of conformal field theories in generic space time dimensions using the methods of the conformal bootstrap, in its analytic aspect. These techniques are solely based on symmetries, particularly on the analytic structure and in the associativity of the operator product expansion. We focused on two applications of the analytic conformal bootstrap: the study of the ϵ expansion of the Wilson–Fisher model via the introduction of a dispersion relation and the large N expansion of the maximally supersymmetric Super Yang–Mills theory in four dimensions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women Physicists in Astrophysics, Cosmology and Particle Physics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

  • Prof. Dr. Norma G. Sanchez - Observatoire de Paris, France
  • Prof. Dr. Silvia Penati - Universita' degli studi di Milano-Bicocca, Italy
  • Dr. Lucia Aurelia Popa - Institute of Space Science, Romania
  • Prof. Dr. Alba Zanini - INFN, Italy
  • Prof. Dr. Laura Andrianopoli with co-authors Dr. Lucrezia Ravera and Prof. Dr. Riccardo D'Auria - Politecnico di Torino, Italy 
  • Prof. Dr. Brigitte Rocca-Volmerange - Université Paris Saclay et Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, France
  • Dr. Mariana Grana - CEA, France - Paper published
  • Dr. Yolanda Lozano Gómez - University of Oviedo, Spain - Paper published
  • Prof. Dr. Marika Taylor - University of Southampton, UK
  • Prof. Dr. Agnese Bissi - Uppsala University, Sweden - Paper published
  • Dr. Alejandra Castro - University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  • Dr. Valentina Forini - City, University of London, UK
  • Prof. Dr. Valentina Giangreco M Puletti - University of Iceland, Iceland
  • Prof. Dr. Michela Petrini - Sorbonne Université, France
  • Dr. Catia Grimani - University of Urbino “Carlo Bo”, Italy
  • Dr. Elli Pomoni - DESY, Germany
  • Prof. Dr. Athina Meli - North Carolina A&T State University, NC 27411, USA - two papers
  • Dr. Sinziana Paduroiu - QOOSP Quantum  Lab, Las Vegas, NV, USA
  • Prof. Dr. Panagiota Kanti - University of Ioannina, Greece
  • Prof. Dr. Elizabeth Winstanley - University of Sheffield, UK
  • Dr. Alessia Ritacco, IAS-Orsay - U. Paris-Saclay and ENS-Paris, France
  • Dr. Marta Felcini - CERN & U. College Dublin, Switzerland
  • Dr. Firdevs Duru - Coe College, USA
  • Prof. Dr. Meenakshi Narain - Brown University, USA
  • Dr. Betti Hartmann - University College London, UK
Back to TopTop