Community Engagement and Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs)

A special issue of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease (ISSN 2414-6366). This special issue belongs to the section "Neglected and Emerging Tropical Diseases".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (16 April 2024) | Viewed by 15619

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, P.O. Box 102 Khartoum, Sudan
Interests: mycetoma

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Tropical and infectious diseases, in particular Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs), are significant and devasting conditions characterised by severe morbidity and mortality. Millions of people are affected globally. This situation is made worse because of the link between disease and poverty with all the consequences for medical practice, health and socioeconomic markers that adversely affect patients, families, communities and health systems. With increased international mobility and travel the spread of these diseases is a global problem, now compounded by the recent COVID-19 pandemic that has severely affected the already stretched capacity for management and control measures for these diseases

This special Issue in Tropical Medicine and Infectious Diseases will provide a forum for researchers and scientists from different backgrounds to present, share and discuss their ideas, experience and research outcomes as they impact different tropical and infectious diseases with special emphasis on NTDs.

The focus of this issue is on Community Engagement with NTDs. This is a broad theme that encompasses the impact of NTDs on patients and their families and communities, initiatives taken to involve patients which include advocacy, training and access to care, the role of the expert patient as part of the health team, as well as the effect of initiatives for control or management on patients’ lives and experiences. This list is not exclusive, and we would welcome relevant original research papers, reviews, short communications and commentaries and case reports that contribute to the understanding and improvement of current knowledge and practice to reduce the global burden of these diseases.

Prof. Dr. Roderick J. Hay
Prof. Dr. Ahmed Hassan Fahal
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • tropical diseases
  • infectious diseases
  • skin NTDs
  • NTDs
  • community engagement

Published Papers (9 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Other

12 pages, 1106 KiB  
Article
Community-Based Intervention for Active Detection and Provision of Single-Dose Rifampicin Post-Exposure Prophylaxis to Household Contacts of Leprosy in Bolivia
by Abundio Baptista Mora, Nimer Ortuño-Gutiérrez, Deisy Zurita Paniagua, Carlos Hurtado Solares, Anil Fastenau and Christa Kasang
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2024, 9(5), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed9050101 - 1 May 2024
Viewed by 619
Abstract
Background: To achieve zero leprosy cases in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, we designed a community-based active detection and provision of single-dose rifampicin post-exposure prophylaxis (SDR-PEP) to household contacts with new leprosy patients. Methods: From July to August 2021, we assessed the current knowledge, attitude, [...] Read more.
Background: To achieve zero leprosy cases in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, we designed a community-based active detection and provision of single-dose rifampicin post-exposure prophylaxis (SDR-PEP) to household contacts with new leprosy patients. Methods: From July to August 2021, we assessed the current knowledge, attitude, and practices through structured interviews and focus group discussions with community representatives and health staff. This was followed by sensitization sessions, the training of health staff, and the reinforcement of referral mechanisms. Teams, including health staff and community volunteers, visited all new leprosy patients detected in 2021–2023 and household contacts. Results: Among 115 community representatives, knowledge about leprosy etiology was attributed to non-biological factors (74%); fear accounted for 77%, and access to care was perceived as weak (74%), but the outlook was improved by SDR-PEP (80%). Among the 217 health staff interviewed, the programmatic barriers identified were a lack of referral feedback (67%), limited supplies for diagnosis and prevention, and ineffective training (64%). We visited 70 new patients and 258 household contacts. The median age in household contacts was 25 years old; 49% were women, 98% were eligible for SDR-PEP, and all who were eligible accepted it. Those who were non-eligible included one tuberculosis patient and six newly detected leprosy patients (23‰). Conclusions: A community-based intervention was successful in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Misbeliefs and a lack of knowledge were identified as barriers. Programmatic components should be reinforced for SDR-PEP extension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Community Engagement and Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs))
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1631 KiB  
Article
Toxoplasma gondii in a Remote Subsistence Hunting-Based Indigenous Community of the Peruvian Amazon
by María Fernanda Menajovsky, Johan Espunyes, Gabriela Ulloa, Maritza Calderon, Andrea Diestra, Edith Malaga, Carmen Muñoz, Stephanie Montero, Andres G. Lescano, Meddly L. Santolalla, Oscar Cabezón and Pedro Mayor
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2024, 9(5), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed9050098 - 26 Apr 2024
Viewed by 549
Abstract
Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects a wide variety range of warm-blooded animals. This study describes the epidemiological scenario of T. gondii in an indigenous community that relies on subsistence hunting in a well-conserved and isolated area of the [...] Read more.
Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects a wide variety range of warm-blooded animals. This study describes the epidemiological scenario of T. gondii in an indigenous community that relies on subsistence hunting in a well-conserved and isolated area of the Peruvian Amazon. The high seropositivity against T. gondii in humans (83.3% IgG and 6.1% IgM), wild mammals (30.45%, 17 species), peri-domestic rodents (10.0% Rattus sp.), and domestic animals (94.1% dogs and 100% cats) indicates the existence of a sylvatic cycle in the community under study. Individual age was found to be positively associated with IgG detection against T. gondii but not with IgM. It is estimated that each family consumed 5.67 infected animals per year with terrestrial species having higher infective rates than arboreal species. The main risk factors included improper handling and cooking of wild meat, poor hygiene practices, and feeding uncooked offal to domestic animals. This scenario results in a continuous process of infection and reinfection within the indigenous community with cats, dogs, and peri-domestic animals becoming infected through the ingestion of infected raw viscera. Our results emphasize the need to promote safe food handling practices and disposal of waste materials from hunted animals in such communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Community Engagement and Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs))
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2138 KiB  
Article
What Does a KAP Survey Reveal about the Awareness Regarding Leishmaniasis among the Community of an Endemic Area in Sri Lanka?
by Mayumi Manamperi, P. Kandegedara, G. I. C. L. De Zoysa, J. M. A. I. K. Jayamanna, E. G. Perera and N. D. Asha Dilrukshi Wijegunawardana
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2024, 9(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed9030055 - 28 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1155
Abstract
Leishmaniasis is one of the neglected tropical diseases. Studies show that the poor knowledge about epidemiological aspects of leishmaniasis within communities causes the collapse of existing disease control programs. Therefore, the present study focuses on a detailed survey of the existing awareness among [...] Read more.
Leishmaniasis is one of the neglected tropical diseases. Studies show that the poor knowledge about epidemiological aspects of leishmaniasis within communities causes the collapse of existing disease control programs. Therefore, the present study focuses on a detailed survey of the existing awareness among the threatened population in the Medawachchiya Public Health Inspector’s (PHI) Area in the Anuradhapura District, Sri Lanka, aiming to assist the health staff to organize community-based vector control programs effectively in the future. Assessment of the awareness of residents of two hundred and seventy households (n = 270) from 10 Grama Niladhari Divisions (GNDs) was carried out by using a structured questionnaire. Among 143 females and 134 males, only 75.1% had knowledge about the disease, 5.8% (n = 16) of the participants knew only about the vector, and 28.9% (n = 80) knew about control methods. The study showed a considerable lack of awareness about the disease among the studied population. The study found that age and education levels had significant impacts on knowledge, attitudes, and practices. However, factors like gender, marital status, occupation, income, and expenses did not show significant correlations. The present study suggests huge scope for greater achievements in community-related vector control methods by implementing a continuous educational program. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Community Engagement and Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs))
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 777 KiB  
Article
Surveillance of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection in Preschool Child Population: Do Changes in Behavior and Immunological Responses Affect Prevalence?
by Riyadi Adrizain, Monika Verena Nagari, Hadyana Sukandar, Afiat Berbudi, Djatnika Setiabudi and Budi Setiabudiawan
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2024, 9(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed9020033 - 30 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1649
Abstract
Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) persist as a significant global public health issue among neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), particularly in children. STH infection can induce immune responses that affect the course of the disease; if treatment fails, chronic infection can lead to stunting, especially among [...] Read more.
Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) persist as a significant global public health issue among neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), particularly in children. STH infection can induce immune responses that affect the course of the disease; if treatment fails, chronic infection can lead to stunting, especially among children aged 24–59 months, which is a vulnerable period for growth and development. We conducted a correlational, cross-sectional data collection study to evaluate the characteristics and association of 25(OH)D, interleukin-5 (IL-5), and interleukin-13 (IL-13) with the prevalence of STH infection in children aged 24–59 months in Bandung District, Indonesia, in October 2019–January 2023. We recruited 694 subjects (401 stunted and 293 normal-height children). The prevalence of STH infection among the stunted and normal-height groups was 5.7% (95% CI: 3.85–8.46%) and 3.4% (95% CI; 1.86–6.17%) (p = 0.156), respectively. The probability of the prevalence of STH infection in children with levels of 25(OH)D, IL-5, and IL-13 below the cut-off point was 6,93 to 16.71 times higher. We found a relationship between IL-5, IL-13, and environmental factors and the prevalence of STH infection in stunted children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Community Engagement and Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs))
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 994 KiB  
Article
Meaningful Engagement of Persons Affected by Leprosy in Research: An Exploration of Its Interpretation, Barriers, and Opportunities
by Laura de Groot, Anna T. van ‘t Noordende, Mathias Duck, Joshua Oraga, Sarju Sing Rai, Ruth M. H. Peters and Nienke Veldhuijzen
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2023, 8(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed8010052 - 10 Jan 2023
Viewed by 3098
Abstract
Despite the growing interest in public and patient involvement in research, best practices in the leprosy context have yet to be explored. This mixed-method study aimed to explore the interpretation, barriers and opportunities of meaningful engagement of persons affected by leprosy in research [...] Read more.
Despite the growing interest in public and patient involvement in research, best practices in the leprosy context have yet to be explored. This mixed-method study aimed to explore the interpretation, barriers and opportunities of meaningful engagement of persons affected by leprosy in research through: (i) an exploratory phase consisting of key informant interviews with experts in public and patient involvement (n = 2) and experts-by-experience (i.e., persons affected by leprosy; n = 4), and (ii) an in-depth phase among leprosy researchers consisting of an online survey (n = 21) and key informant interviews (n = 7). Qualitative data were thematically analyzed. Basic descriptive statistics were used to summarize the survey data. Key informant interviewees unanimously agreed to the importance of engagement in research. Survey results indicated that the level of engagement differed across research stages. Identified barriers included a lack of skills for or awareness of engagement among both experts-by-experience and researchers, stigma and limited time and resources. Opportunities included capacity strengthening, creating a shared understanding, building rapport, and establishing a safe environment. In conclusion, this exploratory study emphasized the importance of engagement of experts-by-experience in leprosy research and identified ways forward that include, but are not limited to, the acknowledgement of its value and creating a shared understanding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Community Engagement and Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs))
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 948 KiB  
Article
A Comparative Study of Lymphatic Filariasis-Related Perceptions among Treated and Non-Treated Individuals in the Ahanta West Municipality of Ghana
by Collins Stephen Ahorlu, Joseph Otchere, Kojo M. Sedzro, Sellase Pi-Bansa, Kofi Asemanyi-Mensah, Joseph L. Opare, Bright Alomatu, Elizabeth F. Long and Dziedzom K. de Souza
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2022, 7(10), 273; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed7100273 - 28 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1891
Abstract
Background: Ghana joined the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF), established in the year 2000, with the aim of eliminating the disease as a public health problem through annual mass treatment of entire endemic populations. Since 2001, the country has implemented mass [...] Read more.
Background: Ghana joined the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF), established in the year 2000, with the aim of eliminating the disease as a public health problem through annual mass treatment of entire endemic populations. Since 2001, the country has implemented mass drug administration (MDA) in endemic districts, with great reductions in the population at risk for infection. However, in many districts, the elimination programme is faced with the presence of hotspots, which may be due in part to individuals not taking part in MDA (either intentionally or unintentionally) who may serve as reservoirs to sustain transmission. This paper compares the LF-related perceptions among individuals who regularly take the MDA drugs and those who seldom or never take part in the MDA in the Ahanta West Municipality of Ghana to determine community acceptable ways to implement an intervention aimed to track, engage, and treat individuals who regularly miss MDA or to test individuals who intentionally refuse MDA and treat them if positive for LF. Methods: This was a mixed method study employing questionnaire surveys and focus group discussions (FDG) for data collection. Survey participants were randomly selected from the 2019 treatment register to stratify respondents into treated and non-treated groups. FGD participants were selected purposively such that there are at least two non-treated persons in each discussion session. Results: Over 90% of the respondents were aware of the disease. Poor hygiene/dirty environment was wrongly reported by most respondents (76.8%) as the causes. MDA awareness was very high among both treated (96.9%) and non-treated (98.6%) groups. A low sense of vulnerability to LF infection was evident by a reduction in the number of people presenting clinical manifestations of the disease in communities. Slightly more, 65 (29.0%) of the non-treated group compared to the 42 (19.4%) treated group reported ever experiencing adverse effects of the MDA drugs. Barriers to MDA uptake reported in both groups were poor planning and implementation of the MDA, lack of commitments on the part of drug distributors, and adverse drug reactions. About 51% of the non-treated group reported never taking the drugs even once in the last five years, while 61% among the treated group took the MDA drug consistently in the past five years. Respondents in both groups believed that, when engaged properly, most non-treated persons will accept to take the drug but insisted community drug distributors (CDDs) must be trained to effectively engage people and have time for those they will be engaging in dialogue. The chiefs emerged as the most influential people who can influence people to take MDA drugs. Conclusions: The reduction in risk perception among respondents, adverse reactions and the timing of MDA activities may be influencing MDA non-participation in the study area; however, respondents think that non-treated individuals will accept the interventions when engaged properly by the CDDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Community Engagement and Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs))
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 247 KiB  
Article
Individual Risk Factors of Mycetoma Occurrence in Eastern Sennar Locality, Sennar State, Sudan: A Case-Control Study
by Rowa Hassan, Kebede Deribe, Hope Simpson, Stephen Bremner, Osama Elhadi, Mustafa Alnour, Ahmed Hassan Fahal, Melanie Newport and Sahar Bakhiet
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2022, 7(8), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed7080174 - 10 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2024
Abstract
Mycetoma is a serious chronic subcutaneous granulomatous inflammatory disease that is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions, where it impacts profoundly on patients, families, and communities. Individual-level risk factors for the disease are poorly understood. To address this, a case-control study was conducted [...] Read more.
Mycetoma is a serious chronic subcutaneous granulomatous inflammatory disease that is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions, where it impacts profoundly on patients, families, and communities. Individual-level risk factors for the disease are poorly understood. To address this, a case-control study was conducted based on data collected from 60 villages in Eastern Sennar Locality, Sennar State, Sudan. Based on the presence of swelling in any part of the body, or sinus formation with or without grain discharge evident from the lesion by ultrasound examination, we diagnosed 359 cases of mycetoma. For each case, we included three healthy sex-matched persons, with no evidence of mycetoma, from the same village as the control group (n = 1077). The odds for mycetoma were almost three times higher in individuals in the age group 16–30 years (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 2.804, 95% CI = 1.424–5.523) compared to those in age group ≤ 15 years. Other factors contributing to the odds of mycetoma were history of local trauma (AOR = 1.892, 95% CI = 1.425–2.513), being unmarried (AOR = 3.179, 95% CI = 2.339–4.20) and owning livestock (AOR = 3.941, 95% CI = 2.874–5.405). In conclusion, certain factors found to be associated with mycetoma in this study could inform a high index of suspicion for mycetoma diagnosis, which would improve early case detection. Other factors found to be associated could inform the development of an interventional program for mycetoma control in Sudan, including education on healthy farming practices and the risks of puncture wounds for individuals residing in endemic areas. However, this work was conducted in one endemic state, while mycetoma cases occur in all states of Sudan. Replicating this study over a wider area would give a fuller picture of the situation, providing the control program with more comprehensive information on the risk factors for the disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Community Engagement and Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs))

Other

Jump to: Research

10 pages, 1210 KiB  
Case Report
Increasing the Awareness of Under-Diagnosed Tropical Cases of Dengue in Romania
by Ioana Miriana Cismaru, Maria Adelina Radu, Ani Ioana Cotar, Florin Oancea, Violeta Melinte, Cristina Vacaroiu, Isabela Ghemulet and Valeriu Gheorghita
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2023, 8(10), 469; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed8100469 - 7 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1703
Abstract
Global travelling increases every year and according to a report released during the COVID-19 pandemic by the UN World Tourism Organization, international travel doubled in 2022, compared to levels in 2021. his fact led also to travel-imported cases of arboviral infections and physicians [...] Read more.
Global travelling increases every year and according to a report released during the COVID-19 pandemic by the UN World Tourism Organization, international travel doubled in 2022, compared to levels in 2021. his fact led also to travel-imported cases of arboviral infections and physicians are often confronted with tropical diseases, such as dengue or chikungunya. Since there is are no pathognomonic cues for these tropical illnesses, early diagnosis is still a big challenge and it depends on many factors, such as exposure risk factors, the epidemiological context, the incubation period, and the wide spectrum of differential diagnoses, including cosmopolitan or exotic infections. Since the clinical presentation of dengue is not typical and there are other febrile illnesses similar to arboviral diseases, misdiagnosis is common even among experienced doctors. Differential diagnosis needs up to date knowledge considering the short viraemic period, the antibody cross-reactivity, and the traps in recognising the nonspecific symptom picture. We present two cases of Dengue diagnosed in Romania which were initially clinically misconstrued, despite the characteristic symptom picture. The main purpose is to increase the level of awareness and to underline the difficulties that clinicians face in recognizing travel-related imported dengue virus disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Community Engagement and Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs))
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2210 KiB  
Project Report
Implementation of a Community-Based Public Model for the Prevention and Control of Communicable Diseases in Migrant Communities in Catalonia
by Jordi Gómez i Prat, Helena Martínez Alguacil, Sandra Pequeño Saco, Hakima Ouaarab Essadek, Jordi Montero i Garcia, Oriol Catasús i Llena and Jacobo Mendioroz Peña
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2023, 8(9), 446; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed8090446 - 14 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1254
Abstract
In high-income countries, migrant populations have a greater epidemiological vulnerability: increased exposure to infectious diseases, difficulties in diagnosis, case follow-up and contact tracing, and obstacles following preventive measures related to cultural and administrative barriers. This study aims to describe the implementation of a [...] Read more.
In high-income countries, migrant populations have a greater epidemiological vulnerability: increased exposure to infectious diseases, difficulties in diagnosis, case follow-up and contact tracing, and obstacles following preventive measures related to cultural and administrative barriers. This study aims to describe the implementation of a community-based program to address these challenges. The target population is the migrant native population from North Africa, South Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, Eastern Europe, and Latin America resident in Catalonia during 2023. Implementation phases include the identification of the perceived needs, search, recruitment and capacity building of 16 community health workers, and the development of a computer software. From January to June 2023, 117 community-based interventions have been implemented, reaching 677 people: 73 community case and contacts management interventions, 17 community in-situ screenings (reaching 247 people) and 27 culturally adapted health awareness and education actions (reaching 358 people). The program addresses the following infectious diseases: tuberculosis, Chagas disease, hepatitis C, typhoid, scabies, hepatitis B, mumps and tinea capitis. The implementation of a community-based model may be key to improving surveillance communicable diseases, promoting an equitable and comprehensive epidemiological surveillance system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Community Engagement and Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs))
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop