Special Issue "Occurrence, Detection and Mitigation of Microbial Toxins"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2021) | Viewed by 5055

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Dragan Isailovic
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606, USA
Interests: Development and applications of separation and mass spectrometry (MS) methods for qualitative and quantitative analyses of cyanotoxins and other biomolecules, such as peptides, proteins, lipids, and glycans.
Prof. Dr. Judy Westrick
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, USA

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Microbes and their toxins are found in various habitats and media, including water, air, and soil. Microbial toxins negatively impact human health through contamination of air, water, houses, and food. Anthropogenic activities including climate change are moving the historical geospatial and temporal boundaries of microbes. Changing locations of niche habitat, seasonal patterns, and intensity of microbial growth influence innate uncertainties in resource management and mitigation strategies.

In order to protect human and environmental health, technologies are needed to discover and quantitate microbial toxins, such as mycotoxins, cyanotoxins, bacterial toxins, and algal toxins. These technologies provide the data needed to create predictive models and mitigation strategies. With climate change as a primary transboundary driver, geospatial and temporal monitoring is needed to create new predictive microbial toxin models. Mitigation strategies need to be tested and implemented with monitoring to determine success. Therefore, research focused on discovering, monitoring, modeling, and mitigating microbial toxins is of utmost importance in order to protect human life necessities such as housing, food, air, and water. 

This Special Issue of Toxins seeks research studies that involve the development of methods for detection, and quantification of microbial toxins in biological and environmental samples. In particular, studies that present novel technologies for automated sample collection, separation, and/or qualitative and quantitative analyses of microbial toxins are of interest. Additionally, research or review papers focusing on predictive modeling and mitigation of microbial toxins are welcomed.

Prof. Dr. Dragan Isailovic
Prof. Dr. Judy Westrick
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Environmental
  • Biological
  • Separation
  • Detection
  • Quantification
  • Mitigation
  • Removal
  • Cyanotoxins
  • Mycotoxins
  • Algae

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Article
Toward Revealing Microcystin Distribution in Mouse Liver Tissue Using MALDI-MS Imaging
Toxins 2021, 13(10), 709; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13100709 - 08 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1050
Abstract
Cyanotoxins can be found in water and air during cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cHABs) in lakes and rivers. Therefore, it is very important to monitor their potential uptake by animals and humans as well as their health effects and distribution in affected organs. [...] Read more.
Cyanotoxins can be found in water and air during cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cHABs) in lakes and rivers. Therefore, it is very important to monitor their potential uptake by animals and humans as well as their health effects and distribution in affected organs. Herein, the distribution of hepatotoxic peptide microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is investigated in liver tissues of mice gavaged with this most common MC congener. Preliminary matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) imaging experiments performed using a non-automated MALDI matrix deposition device and a MALDI-time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer yielded ambiguous results in terms of MC-LR distribution in liver samples obtained from MC-LR-gavaged mice. The tissue preparation for MALDI-MS imaging was improved by using an automated sprayer for matrix deposition, and liver sections were imaged using an Nd:YAG MALDI laser coupled to a 15 Tesla Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR)-mass spectrometer. MALDI-FT-ICR-MS imaging provided unambiguous detection of protonated MC-LR (calculated m/z 995.5560, z = +1) and the sodium adduct of MC-LR (m/z 1017.5380, z = +1) in liver sections from gavaged mice with great mass accuracy and ultra-high mass resolution. Since both covalently bound and free MC-LR can be found in liver of mice exposed to this toxin, the present results indicate that the distribution of free microcystins in tissue sections from affected organs, such as liver, can be monitored with high-resolution MALDI-MS imaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occurrence, Detection and Mitigation of Microbial Toxins)
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Article
Neutralizing Concentrations of Anti-Botulinum Toxin Antibodies Positively Correlate with Mouse Neutralization Assay Results in a Guinea Pig Model
Toxins 2021, 13(9), 671; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13090671 - 21 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1229
Abstract
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are some of the most toxic proteins known and can induce respiratory failure requiring long-term intensive care. Treatment of botulism includes the administration of antitoxins. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) hold considerable promise as BoNT therapeutics and prophylactics, due to their potency [...] Read more.
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are some of the most toxic proteins known and can induce respiratory failure requiring long-term intensive care. Treatment of botulism includes the administration of antitoxins. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) hold considerable promise as BoNT therapeutics and prophylactics, due to their potency and safety. A three-mAb combination has been developed that specifically neutralizes BoNT serotype A (BoNT/A), and a separate three mAb combination has been developed that specifically neutralizes BoNT serotype B (BoNT/B). A six mAb cocktail, designated G03-52-01, has been developed that combines the anti-BoNT/A and anti-BoNT/B mAbs. The pharmacokinetics and neutralizing antibody concentration (NAC) of G03-52-01 has been determined in guinea pigs, and these parameters were correlated with protection against an inhalation challenge of BoNT/A1 or BoNT/B1. Previously, it was shown that each antibody demonstrated a dose-dependent mAb serum concentration and reached maximum circulating concentrations within 48 h after intramuscular (IM) or intraperitoneal (IP) injection and that a single IM injection of G03-52-01 administered 48 h pre-exposure protected guinea pigs against an inhalation challenge of up to 93 LD50s of BoNT/A1 and 116 LD50s of BoNT/B1. The data presented here advance our understanding of the relationship of the neutralizing NAC to the measured circulating antibody concentration and provide additional support that a single IM or intravenous (IV) administration of G03-52-01 will provide pre-exposure prophylaxis against botulism from an aerosol exposure of BoNT/A and BoNT/B. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occurrence, Detection and Mitigation of Microbial Toxins)
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Review

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Review
Critical Assessment of Mycotoxins in Beverages and Their Control Measures
Toxins 2021, 13(5), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13050323 - 30 Apr 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2332
Abstract
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of filamentous fungi that contaminate food products such as fruits, vegetables, cereals, beverages, and other agricultural commodities. Their occurrence in the food chain, especially in beverages, can pose a serious risk to human health, due to their toxicity, even [...] Read more.
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of filamentous fungi that contaminate food products such as fruits, vegetables, cereals, beverages, and other agricultural commodities. Their occurrence in the food chain, especially in beverages, can pose a serious risk to human health, due to their toxicity, even at low concentrations. Mycotoxins, such as aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), patulin (PAT), fumonisins (FBs), trichothecenes (TCs), zearalenone (ZEN), and the alternaria toxins including alternariol, altenuene, and alternariol methyl ether have largely been identified in fruits and their derived products, such as beverages and drinks. The presence of mycotoxins in beverages is of high concern in some cases due to their levels being higher than the limits set by regulations. This review aims to summarize the toxicity of the major mycotoxins that occur in beverages, the methods available for their detection and quantification, and the strategies for their control. In addition, some novel techniques for controlling mycotoxins in the postharvest stage are highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occurrence, Detection and Mitigation of Microbial Toxins)
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