Insecticidal Toxins: Application and Assessment

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 September 2022) | Viewed by 12613

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Entomology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
Interests: Insect Physiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology; Pesticide Environmental Toxicology; physiological, biochemical and molecular mechanisms of insects adapting to toxic substances in the environment and food

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Guest Editor
Hubei Insect Resources Utilization and Sustainable Pest Management Key Laboratory, College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
Interests: insect toxicology; pest resistance

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Secondary metabolites generated by animals, plants, and microbes may be used in pest management, such as plant-produced azadirachtin and celangulin, avermectin generated from Streptomyces avermitili, spinosad from Saccharopolyspora spinosa, and Bt toxins synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis and their  derivatives. Some venoms, venomous protein or peptides of insectivore animals also have the potentiality to develop pesticides. These insecticidal toxins provide scientists with new ideas for biological control strategies. Unlike conventional chemical pesticides, biopesticides are environmentally friendly and are used as a component of integrated pest management (IPM) programs. Research in this field is becoming increasingly more popular today.

This Special Issue aims to shed light on the biosynthesis, regulation, and effects of these natural products on molecular, biochemical, and physiological levels, as well as the biology of populations and resistance mechanisms of pests to natural products. Original research articles, reviews, and reports on products of an insecticidal nature are welcomed. Your contribution will help this paper collection to summarize the progress of biopesticide research and offer guiding directions for future exploration.

The topics of interest include but are not limited to:

  • The biosynthesis of natural products in plants, animals, and microorganisms;
  • Evolutionary analysis of insect adaptation to natural toxins;
  • Biological and ecological characteristics of natural toxin stress on insects;
  • Molecular mechanisms of natural toxin stress on insects;
  • Mechanisms of adaptation to natural toxins in insects (including population, protein, and molecular level);
  • A new view of insect adaptation to natural toxin stress and natural products used in pest management.

Prof. Dr. Xiwu Gao
Prof. Dr. Jianhong Li
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • natural products
  • biopesticide
  • biocontrol
  • insecticidal toxins
  • Bt toxins
  • avermectin
  • celangulin

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 1400 KiB  
Article
Efficacy of Entomopathogenic Fungal Formulations against Elasmolomus pallens (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Rhyparochromidae) and Their Extracellular Enzymatic Activities
by Fredrick Fidelis Umaru and Khanom Simarani
Toxins 2022, 14(9), 584; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14090584 - 25 Aug 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2513
Abstract
Elasmolomus pallens are post-harvest insect pests of peanuts that are becoming resistant to chemical insecticides. In this, we study evaluated the effect of conidial formulations on entomopathogenic fungi against E. pallens to reduce the adverse effects. Fungal conidia were formulated and applied on [...] Read more.
Elasmolomus pallens are post-harvest insect pests of peanuts that are becoming resistant to chemical insecticides. In this, we study evaluated the effect of conidial formulations on entomopathogenic fungi against E. pallens to reduce the adverse effects. Fungal conidia were formulated and applied on sterile filter papers at varying concentrations (1 × 104–1 × 108 conidia mL−1) inside plastic containers. The test insects were exposed and maintained in a relative humidity of 80 ± 10% for 10 d at room temperature (25 ± 2 °C). Mortality was recorded every 24 h. Dose–response bioassay (LC50 and LC90) values for Aspergillus flavus formulated in oil were 1.95 × 106 and 3.66 × 109 conidia/mL, whereas formulations in Tween 80 had 9.36 × 107 and 6.50 × 109 conidia/mL. However, oil-formulated Metarhizium anisopliae had 3.92 × 106 and 2.57 × 108 conidia/mL, with 6.85 × 106 and 5.37 × 108, for formulations in Tween 80. A. flavus had LT50 values of 3.3 and 6.6 days, whereas M. anisopliae had LT50 values of 3.6 and 5.7 d. Maximum protease, chitinase, and lipase activities of 2.51, 0.98, and 3.22 U/mL, respectively, were recorded for A. flavus, whereas values of 2.43, 0.93, and 3.46 were recorded for M. anisopliae. The investigated pathogens demonstrate potential against E. pallens; therefore, their applicability under field conditions requires further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insecticidal Toxins: Application and Assessment)
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14 pages, 1279 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Toxicity of Chemical and Biogenic Insecticides to Three Outbreaking Insects in Desert Steppes of Northern China
by Wenbing Zhang, Hao Ren, Feilong Sun, Tingting Shen, Shuai Yuan, Xiwu Gao and Yao Tan
Toxins 2022, 14(8), 546; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14080546 - 10 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1805
Abstract
The locusts Oedales asiaticus (Bey-Bienko) and Myrmeleotettix palpalis (Zubovski) (Orthoptera Acrididae) and the leaf beetle Galeruca daurica (Joannis) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) are economically devastating insect species in the desert steppes of Northern China. Control is mainly and frequently dependent on highly toxic chemicals. To [...] Read more.
The locusts Oedales asiaticus (Bey-Bienko) and Myrmeleotettix palpalis (Zubovski) (Orthoptera Acrididae) and the leaf beetle Galeruca daurica (Joannis) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) are economically devastating insect species in the desert steppes of Northern China. Control is mainly and frequently dependent on highly toxic chemicals. To date, there have been no complete and comprehensive reports of insecticide applications to these key pests. In this study, laboratory bioassays were carried out to determine and compare the toxicity of twelve insecticides to three outbreaking insects, O. asiaticus, M. palpalis, and G. daurica, from three typical desert steppe regions, SZWQ, XHQ and WLTQQ, respectively. The responses of the two locust species and the leaf beetle were evaluated by topical application and leaf dip bioassay techniques across a range of concentrations to develop dosage–mortality regressions. The insecticides tested included six chemical insecticides (β-cypermethrin, imidacloprid, phoxim, λ-cyhalothrin, methomyl, chlorantraniliprole) and six biogenic insecticides (spinosad, avermectin, rotenone, matrine, azadiracthin, and methoxyfenozide). The results showed that phoxim, λ-cyhalothrin, β-cypermethrin and spinosad showed highly toxic activity to O.asiaticus, M. palpalis, and G. daurica, while methonyl, chlorantraniliprole, and rotenone were moderately toxic to both locust species and the leaf beetle. The LC50 values of matrine, azadiractin, and avermectin were more than 1 μg a.i./adult for O. asiaticus and M. palpalis, the LC50 values of which were higher 2 g/L for G. daurica. Our findings complement information from previous similar studies and will inform future studies relating to the control of outbreaking insects, such as O.asiaticus, M. palpalis, and G. daurica in desert steppes of northern China. This study is also expected to provide basic data on the use of chemical and biogenic insecticides for application in desert steppes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insecticidal Toxins: Application and Assessment)
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9 pages, 758 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Field-Evolved Resistance to Afidopyropen, a Novel Insecticidal Toxin Developed from Microbial Secondary Metabolites, in Bemisia tabaci
by Ran Wang, Qinghe Zhang, Xuan Zhou, Mi Zhang, Qingyi Yang, Qi Su and Chen Luo
Toxins 2022, 14(7), 453; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14070453 - 1 Jul 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2009
Abstract
Afidopyropen, a newly identified chemical, is a derivative of pyripyropene A, which is produced by the filamentous fungus Penicillium coprobium. It is a promising novel pesticide applied against whiteflies in agriculture. In this study, the reversion and selection, cross-resistance patterns, synergistic effects, [...] Read more.
Afidopyropen, a newly identified chemical, is a derivative of pyripyropene A, which is produced by the filamentous fungus Penicillium coprobium. It is a promising novel pesticide applied against whiteflies in agriculture. In this study, the reversion and selection, cross-resistance patterns, synergistic effects, and fitness costs of afidopyropen resistance were studied in a field-developed resistant population of B. tabaci. Compared to a reference MED-S strain, the field-developed resistant Haidian (HD) population showed 36.5-fold resistance to afidopyropen. Significant reversion of resistance to afidopyropen was found in the HD population when it was kept with no selective pressure of the insecticide. The HD-Afi strain, developed from the HD population with afidopyropen pressure, developed 104.3-fold resistance to afidopyropen and significant cross-resistance to sulfoxaflor. Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) largely inhibited afidopyropen resistance in the HD-Afi strain, which indicates that P450 monooxygenase could be involved in the resistance. Significant fitness costs associated with afidopyropen resistance were observed in HD-Afi. This study indicates that a rotation of afidopyropen with other chemical control agents could be useful for impeding afidopyropen resistance in B. tabaci. In addition, we expanded upon the understanding of resistance to afidopyropen, offering evidence suggesting the importance of devising better strategies for the management of whiteflies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insecticidal Toxins: Application and Assessment)
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9 pages, 292 KiB  
Article
Metabolic Resistance in Abamectin-Resistant Bemisia tabaci Mediterranean from Northern China
by Ran Wang, Yong Fang, Wunan Che, Qinghe Zhang, Jinda Wang and Chen Luo
Toxins 2022, 14(7), 424; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14070424 - 22 Jun 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2365
Abstract
Abamectin, produced by the soil-dwelling actinomycete Streptomyces avermitilis, belongs to the macrocyclic lactones class of pesticides, has nematocidal, acaricidal, and insecticidal activity, and is highly effective when used against targeted species. Bemisia tabaci, the tobacco whitefly, is a highly destructive insect [...] Read more.
Abamectin, produced by the soil-dwelling actinomycete Streptomyces avermitilis, belongs to the macrocyclic lactones class of pesticides, has nematocidal, acaricidal, and insecticidal activity, and is highly effective when used against targeted species. Bemisia tabaci, the tobacco whitefly, is a highly destructive insect to agricultural production worldwide, and various insecticide-resistant strains have been identified in China. Here, we monitored levels of resistance to abamectin in twelve field-collected B. tabaci populations from northern China, and confirmed that, compared with the lab reference strain, six field populations exhibited strong abamectin resistance, while the other six exhibited low-to-medium resistance. Among these, the Xinzheng (XZ) population displayed about a 40-fold increased resistance to abamectin, and experienced significant cross-resistance to chlorpyrifos and imidacloprid. The abamectin resistance of XZ was found to be autosomal and incompletely dominant. Metabolic enzyme and synergism tests were conducted, and two metabolic enzymes, glutathione S-transferase and P450 monooxygenase, were found to be conducive to the field-developed abamectin resistance of the XZ population. The above results provide valuable information that can be used in identifying new pest control strategies and delaying the evolution of resistance to abamectin in field populations of whiteflies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insecticidal Toxins: Application and Assessment)
23 pages, 2810 KiB  
Article
Herbivorous Juvenile Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Fed with Genetically Modified MON 810 and DAS-59122 Maize Varieties Containing Cry Toxins: Intestinal Histological, Developmental, and Immunological Investigations
by Gergő Gyurcsó, Béla Darvas, Ferenc Baska, László Simon, Eszter Takács, Szandra Klátyik and András Székács
Toxins 2022, 14(2), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14020153 - 19 Feb 2022
Viewed by 3013
Abstract
Feeding experiments with juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed with genetically modified maize MON 810 or DAS-59122 dried leaf biomass were carried out with 1-, 3- and 6-month exposures. Dosages of 3–7 μg/fish/day Cry1Ab or 18-55 μg/fish/day Cry34Ab1 toxin did not [...] Read more.
Feeding experiments with juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed with genetically modified maize MON 810 or DAS-59122 dried leaf biomass were carried out with 1-, 3- and 6-month exposures. Dosages of 3–7 μg/fish/day Cry1Ab or 18-55 μg/fish/day Cry34Ab1 toxin did not cause mortality. No difference occurred in body or abdominal sac weights. No differences appeared in levels of inorganic phosphate, calcium, fructosamine, bile acids, triglycerides, cholesterol, and alanine and aspartame aminotransferases. DAS-59122 did not alter blood parameters tested after 3 months of feeding. MON 810 slightly decreased serum albumin levels compared to the control, only in one group. Tapeworm (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi) infection changed the levels of inorganic phosphate and calcium. Cry34Ab1 toxin appeared in blood (12.6 ± 1.9 ng/mL), but not in the muscle. It was detected in B. acheilognathi. Cry1Ab was hardly detectable in certain samples near the limit of detection. Degradation of Cry toxins was extremely quick in the fish gastrointestinal tract. After 6 months of feeding, only mild indications in certain serum parameters were observed: MON 810 slightly increased the level of apoptotic cells in the blood and reduced the number of thrombocytes in one group; DAS-59122 mildly increased the number of granulocytes compared to the near-isogenic line. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insecticidal Toxins: Application and Assessment)
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