Topical Collection "Xenobiotics in Developmental Neurotoxicity"
A topical collection in Toxics (ISSN 2305-6304).
Prof. David R. Wallace
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Biomedical Science, Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences, Tulsa, OK 74107, USA
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Interests: environmental toxicology; heavy metals; pesticides; neural development; glioblastoma; neural degeneration; oxidative stress; apoptotic pathways; mitochondrial toxicity; energy utilization; mitochondrial DNA; mercury; cadmium; nickel; arsenic; organophosphate; organochlorine; pancreatic cancer; neuroblastoma; neuroglioma; dopamine uptake; toxicology of mixtures; blood-brain barrier transport mechanisms
The role of xenobiotics in the development of the brain is a rapidly expanding field. A xenobiotic agent is a foreign substance found in a biological organism that would not be normally found in that organism, or found at much higher concentrations than expected. These agents can cover chemical pollutants, drugs, or other biological agents, such as viral particles. There have been significant advances in neuroscience research over the last two decades. The developing brain is extremely sensitive to insult from exogenous xenobiotics. This sensitivity is not confined to in utero exposure, but also throughout infant, toddler, and pre-teen adolescent neurodevelopment. Work in developmental neurotoxicology (DNT) has lagged. Reasons for this delay include; (1) difficulty in finding appropriate model systems, (2) lack of existing toxicology data on many of the chemicals that are commercially available, and (3) relative lack of information regarding mixtures of various chemicals that are commercially available. Most xenobiotics can be categorized based on their physiological/chemical agent. These categories include antioxidants, carcinogens, drugs (prescription/over-the-counter/illegal), environmental pollutants, food additives, hydrocarbons, and pesticides. Of the tens of thousands of compounds, only about 100 compounds have minimal or incomplete evidence of DNT, which includes some pesticides (organophosphates), prescription drugs and a variety of other chemicals. It is clear that additional research is needed to identify appropriate model systems to study DNT effects that will improve the translation from alternative to human model systems. Also, additional work is needed to identify and develop accurate biomarkers that will signal exposure to DNT compounds early in the exposure period, facilitating medical intervention. The purpose of this Topical Collection is to provide a forum to develop a compendium of work spanning a variety of topics to further our understanding of DNT.
Prof. David R. Wallace
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- animal models
- in vitro testing
- risk assessment