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Open AccessReview

EDCs Mixtures: A Stealthy Hazard for Human Health?

by Edna Ribeiro 1,2,3,*, Carina Ladeira 1,3,4 and Susana Viegas 1,4
1
Environment and Health Research Group, Lisbon School of Health Technology, Polytechnic Institute of Lisbon (ESTeSL/IPL), Av. D. João II, lote 4.69.01, 1990-096 Parque das Nações, Lisboa, Portugal
2
Landscape, Environment, Agriculture and Food (LEAF), Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal
3
Research Group in Genetics and Metabolism (GIGM), Lisbon School of Health Technology, Polytechnic Institute of Lisbon (ESTeSL/IPL), Av. D. João II, lote 4.69.01, 1990-096 Parque das Nações, Lisboa, Portugal
4
Centro de Investigação e Estudos em Saúde Pública, Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública, ENSP, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 1900 Lisbon, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David Bellinger
Received: 12 December 2016 / Revised: 23 January 2017 / Accepted: 25 January 2017 / Published: 7 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Xenobiotics in Developmental Neurotoxicity)
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous chemicals that may occur naturally (e.g., phytoestrogens), while others are industrial substances and plasticizers commonly utilized worldwide to which human exposure, particularly at low-doses, is omnipresent, persistent and occurs in complex mixtures. EDCs can interfere with/or mimic estrogenic hormones and, consequently, can simultaneously trigger diverse signaling pathways which result in diverse and divergent biological responses. Additionally, EDCs can also bioaccumulate in lipid compartments of the organism forming a mixed “body burden” of contaminants. Although the independent action of chemicals has been considered the main principle in EDCs mixture toxicity, recent studies have demonstrated that numerous effects cannot be predicted when analyzing single compounds independently. Co-exposure to these agents, particularly in critical windows of exposure, may induce hazardous health effects potentially associated with a complex “body burden” of different origins. Here, we performed an exhaustive review of the available literature regarding EDCs mixtures exposure, toxicity mechanisms and effects, particularly at the most vulnerable human life stages. Although the assessment of potential risks to human health due to exposure to EDCs mixtures is a major topic for consumer safety, information regarding effective mixtures effects is still scarce. View Full-Text
Keywords: endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs); mixtures; biomonitoring; windows of exposure; risk assessment endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs); mixtures; biomonitoring; windows of exposure; risk assessment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ribeiro, E.; Ladeira, C.; Viegas, S. EDCs Mixtures: A Stealthy Hazard for Human Health? Toxics 2017, 5, 5.

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