Special Issue "Dietary Acrylamide: An Update on Exposure and the In Vitro and Epidemiological Evidence of Health Risks"

A special issue of Toxics (ISSN 2305-6304). This special issue belongs to the section "Toxicology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 June 2022) | Viewed by 3984

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Janneke Hogervorst
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Guest Editor
Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Hasselt, Belgium
Interests: epidemiology; risk assessment; environmental health; cancer; developmental toxicity

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

Acrylamide is present in heat-treated carbohydrate-rich foods, such as cookies, potato chips, French fries, and coffee, due to their preparation at high temperatures (>120 °C). It is classified as a probable human carcinogen (IARC class 2A), based on rodent studies. In rodents, acrylamide has been shown to cause cancer in various tissues at high doses. In addition to the carcinogenic effects, acrylamide causes neurotoxicity and reproductive and developmental toxicity in animals. The public health risks of dietary acrylamide intake remain controversial. The epidemiological evidence on the association between dietary acrylamide intake and human cancer risks is still sketchy; for some cancers, increased risks have been observed in some studies but not in all. A recent meta-analysis on the association between acrylamide intake and cancer risk shows increased risks of endometrial and ovarian cancers, especially in never-smoking women.

Acrylamide and its metabolite glycidamide readily pass the placental barrier. To date, several epidemiological studies have shown that higher prenatal exposure to acrylamide is linked to reduced fetal growth. Based on animal studies on the effects of acrylamide, these epidemiological indications for an increased risk of cancer and reduced fetal growth were not expected and might indicate that animal studies do not predict the health effects of acrylamide in humans. Therefore, for a better answer to whether current dietary acrylamide exposure entails a public health risk, more in vitro and epidemiological studies on the health effects of dietary acrylamide exposure (cancer, developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity) are urgently needed. In addition, the information on dietary exposure should be updated because measures have been taken to decrease acrylamide levels in foods, both by governments and food producers. Thus, this Special Issue focuses on the estimation of current dietary acrylamide exposure and the epidemiological evidence for the health effects of dietary acrylamide intake. Authors are invited and welcome to submit original research papers, reviews, and short communications.

Dr. Janneke Hogervorst
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • acrylamide
  • diet
  • exposure
  • health risks
  • in vitro studies
  • epidemiology
  • cancer
  • developmental toxicity

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Article
Acrylamide Content in Breast Milk: The Evaluation of the Impact of Breastfeeding Women’s Diet and the Estimation of the Exposure of Breastfed Infants to Acrylamide in Breast Milk
Toxics 2021, 9(11), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9110298 - 09 Nov 2021
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Abstract
Acrylamide in food is formed by the Maillard reaction. Numerous studies have shown that acrylamide is a neurotoxic and carcinogenic compound. The aim of this study was to determine the level of acrylamide in breast milk at different lactation stages and to evaluate [...] Read more.
Acrylamide in food is formed by the Maillard reaction. Numerous studies have shown that acrylamide is a neurotoxic and carcinogenic compound. The aim of this study was to determine the level of acrylamide in breast milk at different lactation stages and to evaluate the impact of breastfeeding women’s diet on the content of this compound in breast milk. The acrylamide level in breast milk samples was determined by LC–MS/MS. Breastfeeding women’s diet was evaluated based on the 24 h dietary recall. The median acrylamide level in colostrum (n = 47) was significantly (p < 0.0005) lower than in the mature milk (n = 26)—0.05 µg/L and 0.14 µg/L, respectively. The estimated breastfeeding women’s acrylamide intake from the hospital diet was significantly (p < 0.0001) lower than that from the home diet. We found positive—although modest and borderline significant—correlation between acrylamide intake by breastfeeding women from the hospital diet µg/day) and acrylamide level in the colostrum (µg/L). Acrylamide has been detected in human milk samples, and a positive correlation between dietary acrylamide intake by breastfeeding women and its content in breast milk was observed, which suggests that the concentration can be reduced. Breastfeeding women should avoid foods that may be a source of acrylamide in their diet. Full article
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Article
The Utilisation of Acrylamide by Selected Microorganisms Used for Fermentation of Food
Toxics 2021, 9(11), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9110295 - 05 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 589
Abstract
Acrylamide (AA) present in food is considered a harmful compound for humans, but it exerts an impact on microorganisms too. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of acrylamide (at conc. 0–10 µg/mL) on the growth of bacteria (Leuconostoc [...] Read more.
Acrylamide (AA) present in food is considered a harmful compound for humans, but it exerts an impact on microorganisms too. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of acrylamide (at conc. 0–10 µg/mL) on the growth of bacteria (Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5) and yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces lactis var. lactis), which are used for food fermentation. Moreover, we decided to verify whether these microorganisms could utilise acrylamide as a nutritional compound. Our results proved that acrylamide can stimulate the growth of L. acidophilus and K. lactis. We have, to the best of our knowledge, reported for the first time that the probiotic strain of bacteria L. acidophilus LA-5 is able to utilise acrylamide as a source of carbon and nitrogen if they lack them in the environment. This is probably due to acrylamide degradation by amidases. The conducted response surface methodology indicated that pH as well as incubation time and temperature significantly influenced the amount of ammonia released from acrylamide by the bacteria. In conclusion, our studies suggest that some strains of bacteria present in milk fermented products can exert additional beneficial impact by diminishing the acrylamide concentration and hence helping to prevent against its harmful impact on the human body and other members of intestinal microbiota. Full article
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Article
Effects of Acrylamide-Induced Vasorelaxation and Neuromuscular Blockage: A Rodent Study
Toxics 2021, 9(6), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9060117 - 24 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 859
Abstract
Acrylamide (ACR), which is formed during the Maillard reaction, is used in various industrial processes. ACR accumulation in humans and laboratory animals results in genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity, and reproductive toxicity. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which ACR may induce vasorelaxation [...] Read more.
Acrylamide (ACR), which is formed during the Maillard reaction, is used in various industrial processes. ACR accumulation in humans and laboratory animals results in genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity, and reproductive toxicity. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which ACR may induce vasorelaxation and neuromuscular toxicity. Vasorelaxation was studied using an isolated rat aortic ring model. The aortic rings were divided into the following groups: with or without endothelium, with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition, with acetylcholine receptor inhibition, and with extracellular calcium inhibition. Changes in tension were used to indicate vasorelaxation. Neuromuscular toxicity was assessed using a phrenic nerve–diaphragm model. Changes in muscle contraction stimulated by the phrenic nerve were used to indicate neuromuscular toxicity. ACR induced the vasorelaxation of phenylephrine-precontracted aortic rings, which could be significantly attenuated by NOS inhibitors. The results of the phrenic nerve–diaphragm experiments revealed that ACR reduced muscle stimulation and contraction through nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR). ACR-induced vasotoxicity was regulated by NOS through the aortic endothelium. Nicotinic AChR regulated ACR-induced neuromuscular blockage. Full article
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Review

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Review
A Review of Dietary Intake of Acrylamide in Humans
Toxics 2021, 9(7), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9070155 - 30 Jun 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1327
Abstract
The dietary intake of acrylamide (AA) is a health concern, and food is being monitored worldwide, but the extent of AA exposure from the diet is uncertain. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of estimated dietary intake. We performed [...] Read more.
The dietary intake of acrylamide (AA) is a health concern, and food is being monitored worldwide, but the extent of AA exposure from the diet is uncertain. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of estimated dietary intake. We performed a PubMed search identifying studies that used dietary questionnaires and recalls to estimate total dietary AA intake. A total of 101 studies were included, corresponding to 68 original study populations from 26 countries. Questionnaires were used in 57 studies, dietary recalls were used in 33 studies, and 11 studies used both methods. The estimated median AA intake ranged from 0.02 to 1.53 μg/kg body weight/day between studies. Children were represented in 25 studies, and the body-weight-adjusted estimated AA intake was up to three times higher for children than adults. The majority of studies were from Europe (n = 65), Asia (n = 17), and the USA (n = 12). Studies from Asia generally estimated lower intakes than studies from Europe and the USA. Differences in methods undermine direct comparison across studies. The assessment of AA intake through dietary questionnaires and recalls has limitations. The integration of these methods with the analysis of validated biomarkers of exposure/internal dose would improve the accuracy of dietary AA intake exposure estimation. This overview shows that AA exposure is widespread and the large variation across and within populations shows a potential for reduced intake among those with the highest exposure. Full article
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