Special Issue "Occurrence, Fate and Environmental Risk Assessment of the Organic Microcontaminants in Groundwater"

A special issue of Toxics (ISSN 2305-6304). This special issue belongs to the section "Risk Assessment and Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2022 | Viewed by 13036

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Dominika Dabrowska
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University of Silesia, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Institute of Earth Sciences, Katowice, Poland
Interests: hydrogeology; environmental risk assessment; machine learning

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Anthropogenic activities influence the groundwater chemical status. Organic microcontaminants are a real threat to groundwater because even in low concentrations can negatively affect human health. Emerging contaminants in the water environment have been of growing concern in recent years. The most popular substances are persistent organic pollutants (POPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, residues of which occur in both surface water and groundwater. Among the main sources of these substances are insufficient sewage treatment and landfill leachates. In spite of low concentrations of PPCPs in water samples, these compounds constitute a threat to living organisms due to their potential for bioaccumulation. Some of the microcontaminants are also included in the group of endocrine-disrupting chemicals that affect the function of the hormonal system. In this regard, pharmaceuticals and personal care products are hazardous for human health since their residues are occasionally detected in drinking water. Due to the fact that compounds of this type may affect groundwater to a varying degree, it is advisable to assess the risk of groundwater using various available methods, both field and modeling.

Dr. Dominika Dabrowska
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • hydrogeology
  • organic microcontaminants
  • environmental risk assessment
  • groundwater monitoring
  • analysis

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Article
Use of Plant Protection Products in Lombardy, Italy and the Health Risk for the Ingestion of Contaminated Water
Toxics 2021, 9(7), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9070160 - 06 Jul 2021
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Abstract
Pesticides used to protect agricultural crops may contaminate groundwater. This work aimed to identify the pesticides used in Lombardy, Italy, in 2016, their concentration in the groundwater and the risk for health associated with the intake of drinkable water in the adult population. [...] Read more.
Pesticides used to protect agricultural crops may contaminate groundwater. This work aimed to identify the pesticides used in Lombardy, Italy, in 2016, their concentration in the groundwater and the risk for health associated with the intake of drinkable water in the adult population. The risk was evaluated for the presence of single and multiple active substances in the groundwater, calculating the hazard quotient (HQ) and the hazard index (HI), respectively. Lombardy utilises an agricultural area of 980,112 h, which is mainly cultivated with cereals (74%). Approximately 2354 pesticides (about 1.3 × 107 kg), containing 410 active substances (about 4.5 × 106 kg) were sold. There were groundwater contamination measurements in 158 monitoring points, which were investigated twice a year for 31 active substances, and a total of 9152 determinations. Only 17 currently used active substance were measured in the groundwater, among which three belonged to the 10 best-sold pesticides. The exceedance of the environmental quality standard was observed for about 1.5% determinations. The intake of contaminated water in the adult population resulted in a HQ typically ranging between 10−3 and 10−4 and a HI of about 10−3. Although the number of pesticides sold in 2016 in Lombardy was big, only a small fraction of active substances was monitored in the groundwater. Considering these monitored substances, the intake of contaminated groundwater in the adult general population posed an irrelevant risk for health. Full article
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Article
Occurrence and Human Health Risk Assessment of Pharmaceuticals and Hormones in Drinking Water Sources in the Metropolitan Area of Turin in Italy
Toxics 2021, 9(4), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9040088 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 10110
Abstract
Pharmaceuticals and hormones (PhACs) enter the aquatic environment in multiple ways, posing potential adverse effects on non-target organisms. They have been widely detected in drinking water sources, challenging water companies to reassure good quality drinking water. The aim of this study was to [...] Read more.
Pharmaceuticals and hormones (PhACs) enter the aquatic environment in multiple ways, posing potential adverse effects on non-target organisms. They have been widely detected in drinking water sources, challenging water companies to reassure good quality drinking water. The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentration of sixteen PhACs in both raw and treated drinking water sources in the Metropolitan Area of Turin—where Società Metropolitana Acque Torino (SMAT) is the company in charge of the water cycle management—and evaluate the potential human health risks associated to these compounds. Multivariate spatial statistical analysis techniques were used in order to characterize the areas at higher risk of pollution, taking into account the already existing SMAT sampling points’ network. Health risks were assessed considering average detected concentrations and provisional guideline values for individual compounds as well as their combined mixture. As reported in the just-issued Drinking Water Directive 2020/2184/UE, in order to establish priority substances, a risk assessment of contaminants present in raw drinking water sources is required for monitoring, identifying potential health risks and, if necessary, managing their removal. The results showed negligibly low human health risks in both raw water sources and treated water. Full article
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Article
The Use of the Contamination Index and the LWPI Index to Assess the Quality of Groundwater in the Area of a Municipal Waste Landfill
Toxics 2021, 9(3), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9030066 - 18 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 734
Abstract
Environmental degradation caused by the migration of pollutants from landfills is one of the biggest problems for urban areas. Systematic monitoring of groundwater in the vicinity of waste dumps allows for an assessment of the degree of risk to the soil and water [...] Read more.
Environmental degradation caused by the migration of pollutants from landfills is one of the biggest problems for urban areas. Systematic monitoring of groundwater in the vicinity of waste dumps allows for an assessment of the degree of risk to the soil and water environment. In this paper, spatiotemporal variation of groundwater pollution near a municipal landfill in Sosnowiec (southern Poland) was investigated. For this purpose, the monitoring results of five physicochemical indicators from 2014–2019 were used. This study presents an example of the application of the Landfill Water Pollution Index (LWPI) and the Cd Contamination Index. The obtained results indicated that the tested waters were negatively influenced by municipal landfills, especially in the southern part (piezometers P8 and P10). The values of the Contamination Index even reached a value equal of about 1400, while the values of the LWPI index reached 305. Significantly lower values of both indicators were obtained using the results of monitoring studies for other piezometers located upstream from the landfill but belonging to the observation network of a neighboring facility. The indices used permit a determination of the level of groundwater contamination from the described landfill and can be used in similar research areas. Full article
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Review

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Review
A Review of Lysimeter Experiments Carried Out on Municipal Landfill Waste
Toxics 2021, 9(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9020026 - 02 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 812
Abstract
The groundwater risk assessment in the vicinity of landfill sites requires, among others, representative monitoring and testing for pollutants leaching from the waste. Lysimeter studies can serve as an example of dynamic leaching tests. However, due to the bacteriological composition of the municipal [...] Read more.
The groundwater risk assessment in the vicinity of landfill sites requires, among others, representative monitoring and testing for pollutants leaching from the waste. Lysimeter studies can serve as an example of dynamic leaching tests. However, due to the bacteriological composition of the municipal waste, they are rarely carried out. These tests allow for the proper design of the landfill protection system against migration of pollutants into the ground, assessment of bacteriological, biochemical and chemical risk for the groundwater, determination of the water balance of leachate as well as examination of the course of processes taking place in the waste landfill with a diversified access to oxygen. This paper addresses the issue of performing lysimeter studies on a sample of municipal waste in various scientific centers. It analyzes the size of lysimeters, their construction, the method of water supply, the duration of the experiment, the scope of research, and the purpose of lysimeter studies. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

 

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