Reduction and Control of Indoor Air Pollutants in Public and Private Places

A special issue of Toxics (ISSN 2305-6304). This special issue belongs to the section "Air Pollution and Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 September 2023) | Viewed by 4772

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Transportation Environmental Research (BD No. 11), Cheoldobakmulkwanro 176, Uiwang-si 16105, Kyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea
Interests: indoor air quality; source identification; thermal comfortness; particulates; VOCs and radon control in subway systems
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Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, Republic of Korea
Interests: aerosol technology; particle removal systems; particle samplers; indoor air quality; CFD
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Guest Editor
Department of Environmental Machinery, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM), 156 Gajeongbuk-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34103, Republic of Korea
Interests: industrial exhaust gas cleaning; air cleaning for IAQ; electrostatics; electrostatic precipitation; wet scrubber; simultaneous removal of NOx/SOx/PMs; particle charging; particle collection; particle generation; particle filtration; particle and gas measurements; biofiltration; bioaerosols
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Particulates, viruses, and VOCs are major pollutants in multiuse places that are known to be generated from various factors, such as human activities, cooking, and the inflow of outside air through the windows and ventilation systems. Epidemiological studies show that exposure to indoor air pollutants (IAP) is highly hazardous to the body since it raises the sensible pollution level and, along with it, is the possible occurrence of disease and death rates. As IAP concentrations measured in multiuse places are generally higher and more toxic than those in the air, they play a major role in deteriorating indoor air quality and as such require proper control.

This Special Issue aims to focus on control technologies in indoor places such as public, private buildings, and multiuse facilities.

Dr. Duckshin Park
Prof. Dr. Se-Jin Yook
Dr. Hak-Joon Kim
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • indoor air quality (IAQ)
  • particulates
  • viruses
  • VOCs
  • control technologies

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 3912 KiB  
Article
Strategies for Effective Management of Indoor Air Quality in a Kindergarten: CO2 and Fine Particulate Matter Concentrations
by Doyeon Lee, Younghun Kim, Kee-Jung Hong, Gunhee Lee, Hak-Joon Kim, Dongho Shin and Bangwoo Han
Toxics 2023, 11(11), 931; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11110931 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1223
Abstract
The educational and play-related activities of children proceed mainly indoors in a kindergarten. High concentrations of indoor PM2.5 and CO2 have been linked to various harmful effects on children, considerably impacting their educational outcomes in kindergarten. In this study, we explore [...] Read more.
The educational and play-related activities of children proceed mainly indoors in a kindergarten. High concentrations of indoor PM2.5 and CO2 have been linked to various harmful effects on children, considerably impacting their educational outcomes in kindergarten. In this study, we explore different scenarios involving the operation of mechanical ventilation systems and air purifiers in kindergartens. Using numerical models to analyze indoor CO2 and PM2.5 concentration, we aim to optimize strategies that effectively reduce these harmful pollutants. We found that the amount of ventilation required to maintain good air quality, per child, was approximately 20.4 m3/h. However, we also found that as the amount of ventilation increased, so did the concentration of indoor PM2.5; we found that this issue can be resolved using a high-grade filter (i.e., a MERV 13 grade filter with a collection efficiency of 75%). This study provides a scientific basis for reducing PM2.5 concentrations in kindergartens, while keeping CO2 levels low. Full article
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12 pages, 3900 KiB  
Article
The Effectiveness of a Mechanical Ventilation System for Indoor PM2.5 in Residential Houses
by Dongho Shin, Younghun Kim, Kee-Jung Hong, Gunhee Lee, Inyong Park, Hak-Joon Kim, Sangwoo Kim, Cheong-Ha Hwang, Kwang-Chul Noh and Bangwoo Han
Toxics 2023, 11(11), 912; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11110912 - 7 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1095
Abstract
The mechanical ventilation systems used in houses are designed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions while minimizing the energy loss resulting from ventilation. However, the increase in indoor fine particulate (PM2.5) concentration because of external PM2.5 influx through the ventilation system [...] Read more.
The mechanical ventilation systems used in houses are designed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions while minimizing the energy loss resulting from ventilation. However, the increase in indoor fine particulate (PM2.5) concentration because of external PM2.5 influx through the ventilation system poses a problem. Here, we analyzed the changes in indoor PM2.5 concentration, distinguishing between cases of high and low outdoor PM2.5 concentrations and considering the efficiency of the filters used in residential mechanical ventilation systems. When using filters with the minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) of 10 in the ventilation system, the outdoor PM2.5 concentration was 5 μg/m³; compared to the initial concentration, the indoor PM2.5 concentration after 60 min decreased to 73%. When the outdoor PM2.5 concentration was 30–40 μg/m³, the indoor PM2.5 concentration reached 91%. However, when MERV 13 filters were used, the indoor PM2.5 concentration consistently dropped to 73–76%, regardless of the outdoor PM2.5 concentration. Furthermore, by comparing the established equation with the mass balance model, the error was confirmed to be within 5%, indicating a good fit. This allows for the prediction of indoor PM2.5 under various conditions when using mechanical ventilation systems, enabling the formulation of strategies for maintaining indoor PM2.5, as recommended by the World Health Organization. Full article
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11 pages, 2696 KiB  
Article
Removal of Particulate Matter by a Non-Powered Brush Filter Using Electrostatic Forces
by Jaeseok Heo, Jooyeon Lee, Minyoung Yoon and Duckshin Park
Toxics 2023, 11(11), 891; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11110891 - 30 Oct 2023
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Abstract
In urban areas, a major source of harmful particulate matter is generated by vehicles. In particular, bus stops, where people often stay for public transportation, generate high concentrations of particulate matter compared to the general atmosphere. In this study, a non-powered type brush [...] Read more.
In urban areas, a major source of harmful particulate matter is generated by vehicles. In particular, bus stops, where people often stay for public transportation, generate high concentrations of particulate matter compared to the general atmosphere. In this study, a non-powered type brush filter that generates electrostatic force without using a separate power source was developed to manage the concentration of particulate matter exposed at bus stops, and the removal performance of particulate matter was evaluated. The dust collection performance of the non-motorized brush filter varied by material, with particle removal efficiencies of 82.1 ± 3.4, 76.1 ± 4.7, and 73.7 ± 4.5% for horse hair, nylon, and stainless steel, respectively. In conditions without the fan running to see the effect of airflow, the particle removal efficiency was relatively low at 58.2 ± 8.4, 53.6 ± 9.2, and 58.0 ± 7.3%. Then, to check the dust collection performance according to the density, the number of brushes was increased to densify the density, and the horse hair, nylon, and stainless steel brush filters showed a maximum dust collection performance of 89.6 ± 2.2, 88.3 ± 3.2, and 82.1 ± 3.8%, respectively. To determine the replacement cycle of the non-powered brush filter, the particulate removal performance was initially 88.0 ± 3.2% when five horse hair brushes were used. Over time, particulate matter tended to gradually decrease, but after a period of time, particulate matter tended to increase again. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the particulate matter removal performance using a brush filter that generates electrostatic force without a separate power source. This study’s brush filter is expected to solve the maintenance problems caused by the purchase and frequent replacement of expensive HEPA filters that occur with existing abatement devices, and the ozone problems caused by abatement devices that use high voltages. Full article
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12 pages, 4807 KiB  
Article
Effectiveness of Tap Water in Reducing the Generation of Ultrafine Wear Particles from the Wheel-Rail Contact by Eliminating the Water Vapor Effect
by HyunWook Lee
Toxics 2023, 11(10), 873; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11100873 - 20 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1009
Abstract
This study aimed to assess the impact of tap water application on reducing the generation of ultrafine particles from the wheel-rail contact using a twin-disk rig under dry and wet conditions, with train velocities of 45 and 80 km/h. A small amount of [...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess the impact of tap water application on reducing the generation of ultrafine particles from the wheel-rail contact using a twin-disk rig under dry and wet conditions, with train velocities of 45 and 80 km/h. A small amount of 0.3 L/min tap water was applied at the wheel-rail contact, and a diffusion dryer was used to eliminate water vapor. The Fast Mobility Particle Sizer measured the number concentration (NC) of nano-sized wear particles in the range of 6 to 560 nm. The tap water application method effectively reduced the NC of ultrafine and fine particles by 67–72% and 86–88%, respectively. Positive reduction rates were observed for all diameters at 45 km/h and for most diameters, except for approximately 70 nm and 80 nm, at 80 km/h. Even with a small amount of water, this approach successfully decreased nano-sized wear particle generation. However, the potential influence of mineral crystals in tap water on NC requires further investigation. Overall, this method shows promise for enhancing air quality and public health by mitigating nano-sized wear particle generation in subway systems. Full article
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